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The New Dispensation

In this dark age, Guru Nanak revealed1 God the Supreme Being is one and no other;

He initiated his disciples with charnamrit:

Water sanctified by the touch of his lotus feet,

And gave a new code of conduct,

As the high Way of spiritual life (rahiras)2.

Thus, Guru Nanak gave to dharma, its lost legs;

He blended four castes and creeds into one: the Sikhs. He gave the lowliest9 social equality with kings.

He taught humility to all the world.

(Bhai Gurdas Var I, 24)

Daulat Khan Lodhi was deeply impressed by the fearlessness, and fiery mystic fervour of Guru Nanak. The qazi resented Guru Nanak being seated by the side of the Governor, more so when he was uttering such blasphemous words: “There is no Hindu and there is no Muslim.” Noticing the uneasiness of the qazi, Daulat Khan asked him to question Guru Nanak on some theological point. The qazi then asked Guru Nanak to explain what he meant by saying “There is no Hindu and no Musalman,” when the whole population was either Hindu or Muslim. Am I, the qazi, not a Musalman”? he asked.

“No man,” said Guru Nanak “can claim to be a Muslim if he does not live up to the high and sublime ideals of Islam.” How can anyone who does not live like a sincere and true Muslim ever claim to be a Muslim?” “And what, may I know,” asked the qazi “is the code of conduct for a true Muslim?”3 The reply of Guru Nanak is recorded in the following historic verses:

Difficult it is to claim to be a Muslim,

To do so one must love and act like a true Muslim: First, he must be devoted to faith in God and the prophet And remove all pride and vanity of wealth Through charity, as the file removes the rust.

After becoming a Muslim, one should abide by Islam, And dispel all delusion about life and death.

He should gracefully accept the Will of God,

And through utter dedication have faith in the Creator; If then he shows compassion to all creatures He would be worthy of being called a Muslim.

Let compassion be thy mosque,

Let faith be thy prayer carpet;

Let just and lawful earning be} knowledge of Koran; Let modesty be thy rules of observance Let piety be the fasts thou keepest;

In such wise strive to be a Muslim.

Let right conduct symbolise the Ka'aba Let eternal Truth be the spirit of the prophet;

Let good deeds adorn thy prayers,

And let submission to God's Will be thy rosary4.

(Guru Nanak: Rag Majh. p. 141)

The qazi was silent, and speechless. The moral fervour of Guru Nanak’s words projected timeless universal truths, with moving intensity. His thoughts blazed forth from his intimate experience of truth and knowledge of the best that was in the Semitic and Vedic faiths. Like Beethoven’s deathless music, of sprung, to the heart it shall penetrate,” the flaming and musical words of Guru Nanak reached the deepest recesses of emotional and spiritual awareness of his hearers. Neither the learned Nawab, nor the qazi, nor the mullas of the court, questioned Guru Nanak’s deeper knowledge of Islam, nor could they find fault with his conception of a true Muslim. “The whole country is swarming with Hindus,” said the qazi, “and yet you say there are no Hindus.” “Grieved by the practice of idolatory, primitive practices of worship, hypocrisy, slavish mentality of the Hindus, Guru Nanak commented :

The Hindus are fundamentally in error;

Having missed the right path, they wander in darkness; JVarada led them to the worship of idols and images,

Thus, they have become spiritually blind and deaf In blind idolatrous worship, they live in utter darkness; These uncultured fools worship stone-gods.

The stone-god easily sinks in a stream,

How can it help you cross the Ocean of life.5

(Guru Nanak: Var Bihagda. p. 556)

Heartened to learn that Guru Nanak was so much against the idolatrous practices of the Hindus the qazi asked: “Are you a Hindu or a Mulsim?”6 Guru Nanak replied: “Both the Hindus and Muslims are made of the same physical element. So physically I am identical with both Hindus and Muslims. I do not differ from either of them. I worship the same God whom Hindus and Muslims consider to be different, and whom they have given different names. I have within me the blazing Light of God which is neither Hindu nor Muslim. I am a brother of all lovers of God. All those who live in His service are my kith and kin. They are my brothers in faith, be they Hindus or Muslims. But to be frank, at present some call me a ghost, others think I am possessed; some pity me as a sad lonely man, and think I am mad. I am indeed mad, but I am mad after my Beloved Lord.”7

It was now time to recite the Friday namaz and the Nawab and his Muslim countries left for the mosque. The qazi invited Guru Nanak to join them since he deemed Hindus and Muslims as equal. Guru Nanak readily agreed and joined them in the prayer which was led by the qazi- The very fact that Guru Nanak had gone to the mosque to pray with the Muslims in the truly Islamic manner surprised and shocked his brother-in-law Jai Ram. He ran to Bibi Nanaki and broke to her the shocking news, that Guru Nanak had almost become a Muslim, as he had joined the Nawab and others in their prayers in the mosque. Bibi Nanaki laughed heartily and asked Jai Ram not to worry about it.8 “My brother,” said Bibi Nanaki, “is a prophet. To him a mosque and a mandir are the same. He would not become a Muslim, by praying in the mosque, nor would he become a Hindu by praying in a mandir. For him all prayer, all congregational meditations are Sat Sang communion with truth. He would gladly go to places and persons where he can have spiritual communion with truth. He has gone to the mosque for such a communion with Truth. If he finds it there, he will devoutly pray. If he does not, he will come out, Nanak worships God and the Almighty is on his side and bestows His grace on him.”9

Guru Nanak had accompanied Nawab Daulat Khan Lodhi and the qazi to Friday prayers. Along with them, he devoutly performed ablution and joined them in the prayers which were led by the qazi. Khushwaqt Rai in his “ Tawarikh-i-Sikhan' says “With great pressure the Muslims asked him whether he was a Muslim or a Hindu,” “None of the two“ replied Nanak, “I am a slave of the Lord and all are my creeds.” The Muslims argued that if all religions were the same to him, he should recite the namaz (Muslim prayer) with them. Nanak agreed and they took him to the mosque. Nawab Daulat Khan was also there. Nanak did not salute anyone—neither the Nawab nor the Qazi. This the Nawab did not like, and he asked him why he had not observed the custom of saluting. “The head of the desireless is held high,” said Nanak. With all their zeal, the Muslims went for the prayer. Nanak also came and stood with them. While the Muslims regularly sat for the prayer, stood up and prostrated. Nanak did not bow down. After the prayer the Muslims became furious with Nanak enquiring why he had not offered the prayer.”

Addressing the Qazi, Guru Nanak said, “Your prayer will not be accepted.” “And why, may I ask, will my prayers not be accepted by God?” asked the qazi;10 “Is there anything wrong with our namaz (prayer)?” “No,” answered Nanak “nothing is wrong with the namaz11. If it had been sincerely recited in the mental presence of God it would surely have been accepted by Allah. While your lips were uttering the prayer, your mind was thinking of your mare, which had just foaled, and you feared lest the foal might fall into the well, which is in your courtyard. How can your prayer be accepted by Allah12?” The Qazi was dumbfounded. He admitted that Guru Nanak was telling the truth. But he asked : “Was not the Nawab praying sincerely? “The Nawab,” said Guru Nanak, “was thinking of his horses which his agents were buying in Kandhar.” Daulat Khan Lodhi was taken aback. “Cursed be the day and my fate when through my folly, such a noble wazir (minister) like Guru Nanak became a fakir” said the Nawab.13 He fell at Guru Nanak’s feet and said, “Blessed I am that I have met so great a prophet of God. Assure me, O Nanak, that by your mercy and compassion all my sins will be forgiven in the court of God.” “May God shower His grace on thee, Daulat Khan Lodhi. In life and death I shall be a witness of your noble heart and I shall stand by you as your Protector in all your ordeals in this and the other world,”14 said Guru Nanak, “Most revered Master,” said Daulat Khan Lodhi, "all my kingdom, my wealth and my army are yours. Please accept them and treat me as your humble servant.” Pleased with the spirit of self-dedication of Daulat Khan Lodhi, Guru Nanak said: “God bless thee, Nawab Daulat Khan.15 You, as my disciple will keep this kingdom, wealth, and army and rule nobly over the people of Punjab. I am renouncing everything. I am leaving this place soon.”16

Like many mystic scholars and Muslims of his time, Daulat Khan believed in a mysterious personage of near-eastern folklore—a sort of scholar- gypsy called Khizr, who had discovered the Elixir of life, and who appeared from time to time to ordinary mortals. The persian poet Hafiz is said to have miraculously received the gift of poetry from Khizr. Daulat Khan Lodhi asked Guru Nanak if he could, through his blessings, see Khizr. Guru Nanak assured him that he would do so soon17. The Janam Sakhis say that the same night the Nawab saw Khizr in a dream vision, and told him that by the command of Gum Nanak he would always be at the service of Daulat Khan.

Guru Nanak then went home and met Bibi Nanaki. No one understood Guru Nanak so well as she did. To her, the will of her brother was the Will of God. He was an embodiment of truth. As such she not only loved him but revered him as a prophet. Guru Nanak shared all his spiritual experiences and divine knowledge with her. Nothing of his inner life was a secret from her.

From this day onward Guru Nanak began to spend most of his time in the forests, in seclusion. He sought solitude and elected silence. He would not come to Sultanpur for days at a stretch. In the forest he would sleep in the open, take whatever fruit or leaves nature afforded, and spend most of his time contemplating his great vision and cherishing the divine gifts and commands he had received from God. Mardana and a few close disciples came to him and sat near him. It was during this period of seclusion and periodic reappearance into the city, he composed his great Meditations : the Japji, the Sodar and the Sohila. It was during this period of silence and prophetic utterance he, as the Guru, introduced the new baptism through water, touched by his lotus feet and sanctified by the prayers he had composed. The baptism came to be known as the Charan-pahul18, and it remained the sole medium of initiation till it was replaced by Khande di pahul by Guru Gobind Singh. The details of both ceremonies were the same. The ethical code of the disciples was the same. Every Sikh was supposed to recite three prayers composed by Guru Nanak which the devout began to memorise and copy. These three prayers were : Japji, Sodar, Sohila-Arti19. Tradition has it that Bibi Nanaki was the first to be initiated according to the New Dispensation. Then Guru Nanak initiated some of his closest disciples. History records that when Mardana the bard was baptised, he received the following instruction: Do these three things (1) Keep hair on your head; (2) Early at dawn contemplate the Divine Word and meditate on it by repeating it. (3) Serve all devotees of God and virtuous men irrespective of the caste and creed.20

Guru Nanak then told Mardana that he intended to go on a long missionary tour. He would like him to accompany him. Mardana readily agreed but before he left home he wanted to perform his daughter’s marriage. At this time there had come to stay with Guru Nanak, the Chowdhary of Malesihan Village, named Bhagirath. He was a devout worshipper of Durga, but the goddess in his vision told him that if he wanted peace and enlightenment he must go to Guru Nanak. He met Guru Nanak and became his devout disciple. Guru Nanak asked Bhagirath to pay double the amount required by Mardana for his daughter’s marriage. He asked him to personally go to Lahore and buy the best gifts for Mardana’s daughter.

When Bhagirath went to the shop of a rich merchant named Mansukh at Lahore and placed order for all the things required, Mansukh asked him whose marriage was to be performed with such costly articles. When he informed him that Guru Nanak was arranging the marriage of the daughter of his bard, he was taken aback. “I want to meet your Guru,” said Mansukh, and, if he is really so great as this noble act of charity indicates I will not charge a penny for all the articles, but will give something more for the bard’s daughter’s marriage. As soon as Mansukh met Guru Nanak he felt so spiritually exalted that he dedicated his services to the Master. He did not charge any money for the articles he had given for the marriage of Mardana’s daughter. Bhagirath gave a substantial amount of money for performing the marriage to Mardana. Mardana also received money and gifts from Bibi Nanaki, Mehta Kalu Chand and Rai Bular. His daughter was married with great pomp and show.

When Guru Nanak’s father-in-law Mul Chand came to know that the Master had renounced the world, he came to Sultanpur with a Brahmin scholar named Sama21 who was the family guru and priest of Mul Chand. They came to know that Guru Nanak spent most of the time in uninhabited forests close by, and he came to the city only on some days.

Pundit Sama met Guru Nanak. He had come to conquer the Master’s mind with his intellectual powers but felt helpless when he met him. “Why have you renounced your family and household life, Nanak? Everyone is seriously upset about it. If you leave your wife and children their life will be ruined,” said Pundit Sama. “Who told you,” asked Guru Nanak, “that I have renounced my householder’s life? I have not renounced my wife and children. I have not broken any contacts with my parents and relatives. I have only renounced maya. I want to devote some years of my life exclusively to the service of humanity. I want to dispel the moral and spiritual darkness that prevails all over. Many householders go away from home to conquer lands and kingdoms. For years they may be away from home, yet they do not renounce the family life. Many traders go to far off countries and leave their family behind. They do not renounce their family life. I have not become an ascetic and I have not renounced my family life. But the call has come for a greater cause of humanity, so I must go. My wife and children are amply provided for. Sister Nanaki and my father will look after them. When my work is over I will come back and settle down to the same life. My wife and children will live with me.”

Sama was silent. He begged for spiritual instructions which the Master gave. Pundit Sama then advised Mulla Chauna not to interfere with Guru Nanak’s mission. “Guru Nanak belongs to the whole of humanity”; he said, “He has a duty towards God and responsibility to save humanity. He has spent the best years of his youth with his family, and now the family must not be a hindrance to his service to mankind at large. No matter where Nanak goes, he will come back home. He loves his home. He loves his children. He loves his sister, mother and father. He loves Rai Bular and now he loves Daulat Khan Lodhi. He will come back to all of them. But now he has a mission and command of God to be fulfilled. Only once in many thousand years is such a one born who receives such an assignment and if even these rare souls do not serve humanity and sacrifice their narrow interest, humanity will go to hell.”

Down to earth worldly minded Mul Chand could not understand all this. All that he was concerned was the domestic happiness of his daughter. Bibi Nanaki assured him that his daughter Sulakhani would receive every tender care from her, but he angrily decided to take Sulakhani and her younger son Lakhshmi Chand with him. Bibi Nanaki kept Sri Chand with her. The boy was deeply attached to her. Some days later Mardana came to Sultanpur, after having performed the marriage of his daughter.

After Guru Nanak’s transfiguration, it now became clear to all, that he had become supernally exalted with incomparable and perfect enlightenment, and he was determined to translate his new religious experiences and mystic illumination into far- reaching thoughts and actions. He was now ready to give to the world, new conceptions of synthetic faith based on realistically conceived social foundations and political consciousness. The New Dispensation was then known as “Babe Nanak di Sikhi; the religious discipline of Baba Nanak. But Guru Nanak and his apostles called it by a number of names symbolising its purity, individuality, and distinctive spirituality, such as, Gurmukh Marag (Path of the Enlightened); Nirmal Marag (Path of the Pure); Sach da Marag (Path of Truth). Guru Nanak laid the foundation of his new Faith: (1) by channelising his spiritual experiences and imparting them through his own spiritual and ceremonial baptism known as charan- pahul-amrit. (2) by imparting to his disciples his own Divine Word, guru-mantram, (3) by giving his disciples new prayers, written by him such as Japji, Rahiras, Sohila, (4) by giving them a new code of conduct based on his own view of social ethics, which broke down completely the barriers between the Hindus and Muslims, the high caste and low caste people, and the rich and the poor. Guru Nanak did not cast his revelation in any traditional form, nor did he try to renew and revitalise any old faith. He founded a religious philosophy and cultus of his own, based on such ideals of fellowship, communion and passion for social and political freedom, as were hitherto unknown. The central experiences of Guru Nanak, the founder of the New Dispensation, were concretized in the structure and organisation of Sikhism. The whole community of his followers, hailing from Hindu and Muslim societies, were infused by his spirit and outlook.

Guru Nanak left for the Punjab tour along with his bard. It appears from all Janam Sikhas that no other disciple was with Guru Nanak during this Punjab tour, which was undertaken for about two years or perhaps more.

Notes and References

  1. charan dhoe rahiras kar, carnamrit sikhan pilaya; parbrahm puranbraham, kalyug aiidar ik dikhaya; care pair d'larm de, car varan ik varan karaya. rana rank barabrl, pairin pavna jag vartaya. (Bhai Gurdas VI, 24)
  2. The word Rihiras is the Punjabi form of the Persian word Rahi-rasam which means “Code of Conduct”. Bhai Gurdas makes it quits clear that Guru Nanak introduced the baptism by water touched by his lotus feet (Chamamrit), and gave to his disciples his own Code of Conduct. The details of the Code of Conduct are given by Bhai Gurdas in other Vars. Thus, Guru Nanak laid the foundation of his own mystic and spiritual faith, embedded in social life. His baptised disciples were called Guru-sikhs, while the unbaptised novices were called nam-dharik Sikhs corresponding to the Sahajdharis of today. These two words are repeatedly used in the Janam Sakhis.
  3. tab qazi puchia, he Nanak, tu jo kehna hai, na koi Hindu aur na koi Musalman hai so tudh ne kya paya hai; tab Babe kehya Hinduan ka karam kare so Hindu hovai, ar Musalmana de karam kare so musalman hovai tan Qazi puchia musalman de karam kehde hain. (J.M.S. (LI, nd II) p. 129)

ik Hinduan da rah hai, ik Musalmana da rah hai, par tu kehde rah vie hai, tab Babe Nanakji kehya ji, “na koi Hindu hai na kol Muslaman hai, mai kis de rah hovan ? mai khudae de rah hovan; Khudae na Hindu na Musalman hai; mai jeha si khudae de rah han; asadi nazar vie na koi Musalman hai na koi Hindu hai; rah sir koi nahi;

Guru Nanak said: I do not see any real Hindu or Muslim ? I cannot accept any of these religions. My religion is the Religion of God. God is neither Hindu nor Muslim, so mine is the path of God. Neither the Hindus nor the Muslims are on the right path. (J. Mb. p. 92)

jo Hindua de karam kare soi Hindu kahida hai, ate jo Musalmana de karam kare soi Musalman, tan Qazi ne puchia Musalmana de karam kehde han. (J.B. (L I) p. 95)

  1. Almost all Janam Sakhis and other biographies of Guru Nanak quote these hymns as the historic answer. Some have added more verses which appear to have been written on some other occasions. Some Janam Sakhis which have been corrupted by those who wished to depict Guru Nanak’s faith as a sect of Hinduism have either avoided or misquoted what Guru Nanak said about the Hindus of his times. I have given the actual historical verses which are given in old MSS copies of Janam Sakhis. In the later versions it has been replaced by a Sloka whose author is Guru Ram Das, the fourth Guru, and not Guru Nanak.
  2. Hindu bhule hoe ate aputhe hi jande hain; ate man Narad de akhe lagde hain tis karke andhe hain, brahm driSti nahi dekh sakde; te gunge hain, parmeswar da jas nahi kar sakde hain; pathran nu pujde hain, murakh hain, so pathar jehda ap duban vale hain so tina nu kis taran taran ge. (J.B. (LI) p. 96)
  3. This question was asked from Guru Nanak in many places and by many persons. The answer given by Guru Nanak is almost the same. We shall refer to it in two or three important places.
  4. phir qazi puchia, Nanak ji tun Hindu hai ja Musalman ? tan Baba bolya, is tan nu koi sunat bahae ke Musalman kehnda hai, ar is tan nu koi tilak jenju pae ke Hindu kehanda hai, tante mai vicar ke divana hoe rehya ha, so parmesvar ton bina hor nahi janta.

(In the above quotation Guru Nanak points out that the difference between the Hindus and Muslims was merely physical and social. He who circumcised claimed to be Muslim, and he who put on frontal marks claimed to be Hindu. He was neither of these by these standards. He was a God intoxicated man). Guru Nanak says:

mai is sarlr de pavitar karanvala atma han, age atma te parmatma vie bhed koi nahi; jaise trang mai jai ik hai taise sariron mai satya parmatma di ik hi hai; jad da mai guran thl eh gyan drid klta hai, tan mai Vah-guru bina duja kich nahi janda; deh hi Hindu hai, deh hi Musalman hai, mai deh da sakhi nyara han, tan Khan sunkar matha tekya jo mai tainu Khudae da Wall janda haun.

I am the living Spirit, Atma, behind this body. The Atma is not different from the Supreme Being; its relation to God is the same as the wave of water to the sea. In the same way I believe that the living Spirit in all human beings, (be they Hindus or Muslims) is the same. My Divine Teacher, God Himself, has enlightened me with the convic-tion that Hindus and Muslims differ only in their bodies or physical life, but the Witness of all human bodies, the eternal Spirit of Man, is the same everywhere. I am not the body. I am the eternal Spirit. On hearing this, Nawab Daulat Khan fell at the feet of Guru Nanak in humble adoration and said: “From this day onwards, I acknowledge thee as a great prophet of God.” (S.B.M.S. p. 25)

  1. Jai Ram bada dilglr hoe ghar ae vadia, Jai Ram ne kehla, sun parmesvar di band!, aj tere Bhai ne kya klta; jo Nawab nal jume maslt vie namgz kame gaya; ate sare sehar vie Hindu Musalamana vie dand pal hai, han, jo aj Nanak Turk hoya hai; mai kya na dilgir hosan. (J.B. (Dacca MSS) p. 58)
  2. tan agon Nanaki kehya ji tusl uth kar rasoi jovo, tusln Nanak de valon dhokha koi na karo, acint raho, Nanak jo hai so dhadhe da hamaitl hai; Nanak val koi nahi buri nazar dekh, sakda. (J.B. (Dacca MSS) p. 58)
  3. tab Nanak kehya, khan ji mai qazi ki kya parvah pad! hai. par qazi ki nimaz kabul nahi padi; et, vaste hasya han; tab qazi kehia Khan ji je in kai pai hai tan meri taksir zahar karo, (P.J. I and n. p. 21, p. 23)
  4. Nimaz upar khada tusan asan ditha ji Nanak hasia ? eh kia hisab hai ji nimaz vie hasia tab Nanak bolia, Khan, ji eh taksir qazi vie hai, nimaz vie nahi. tan Qazi kehya, dekha Khan, eh kafir asada namaz nu hasya hai, tan Khan puchya, Baba tusin sadi namaz nu kion hasai ho ? (S.B.M.S. p. 43)
  5. Babe kehya KhSn ji, ja eh namaz, upar khada tha tab is ka man thaud nahi tha., in ki ghodi sui thi, vacheri jami thi, ar, vacheri chad aya tha; tai vede vie khuhi thi, in kehia mat vacheri khuhi vie paundi hovai; is ka man uhan gaya tha. (P.J. I and II p. 22, p. 23)

jad eh namaz par khada hoya ta is ka jio hor thai gaya; ghar ghodi sui sasu; Nimaz upar sijda dende us ghodi upar jio payos; haveli vie khuh si, vie ghodi badhi hai, piche vachretu hai, iana vachretu hai, khuhe vie pai mare ga. (J.Mb. p. 89-99)

tan Babe kehya, jis vele tusin uju karde se, os vele tusanda man namaz val haisl, tan tusade upar Khuda prasan si, par jad tusi namaz padan lage ho tan tusadi namaz kabul, nahi pai, tan Babe ji kehya Qazi nu: Imam tu hai, so tere ghar ghodi sui hai, tere ghar vie khuhi haisi, tera dhyan, odhar gaya si, mat meri vacheri khuh vie and pai jandi hovai; je Imam da man rehya nahi tan horna di namaz kithon pavai. (S.B.M.S. p. 43)

  1. tab Khan kehya, eh meri kambakhtl hai, jo tudh jeha vazir fakir hoya. (P.J. I. and II. p. 20-23)

tan Khan akhaya: Bhai eh koi vada Wali hai, isnu meri Diwangi bhi deo. (S.M.B.S. p. 42)

  1. Nanakji salamat, tere didar, dekhane da asano eh hasal hovai je asano khudae kiven bakhse, tan Babe de muh vlicon niklya, je “jah Khan, tera dargah da jaman haun; taino bhist Khudie kanon pavaisan; tera na koi ethe hisab lae ga, tun Khudae khalas kita hai”. (J.Mb. p. 102)
  2. tab Khan kehia, Nanak, raj, mai, hukam hasal sabh tera hai; tab Guru Nanak kehya: Khudae tera bhala karega, hun tikan ki bat rahi, raj mai, ghar bar tere haia; asm tyag cale. (J.P.I. and II p. 22-24)
  3. Apostle Bhai Gurdas mentions the name of Daulat Khan Lodhi amongst the prominent disciples of Guru Nanak. “Dault Khan Lodhi bhala hod jind pir abinaii (Var II 13).
  4. The story how Khizr met Daulat Khan Lodhi and how the Nawab earned the title of Zinda-pir is given by Bhai Mani Singh in his Sikhian di Bhagatmdlp. 85.
  5. The Charanpahul ceremony is mentioned by Bhai Gurdas, in his Vars and by Bhai Mani Singh in his Janam Sakhi, to which historians rarely refer. The details of the ceremony as modified by the followers of Sri Chand, is described in Tehkikate-i-Chisti. The novice according to them is offered the baptisal water five times to drink, five times it is sprinkled on his eyes and five times it is poured on his head. Then the Mystic Word (Nam) is imparted. This is exactly how the Khalsa is baptised even now.
  6. Sodar Arti gaviai amrit vele Jap ucara. Bhai Gurdas Var 1:38 “Sanjai Sodar gavna, man meli kar mel milande rati kirtan sohila kar arti par ad vadande. ibid Var 6:3 Some scholars who study Guru Nanak’s work merely as poetry have made an arbitrary division of his writings and have declared without any external or internal evidence that the shorter verses of Guru Nanak were composed by the Guru in earlier life while the major compositions were written during the last years at Kartarpur. The Janam Sakhis make it quite clear, and there is internal evidence also, that Japji and Sodar were composed at Sultanpur immediately after Enlightenment; Patti was composed during early years; Sidh-Gosht was written immediately after the Guru’s visit to Sumer Mt. Omkar was written during the southern tour. Asa -di-Var was composed at Pakpattan. Thus all major, compositions were composed before settling at Kartarpur. All literary reflections about the possible dates of compositions or periods not supported by historical facts are unscholarly fancies.
  7. Guru Nanak once asked Mardana to impart the Sikh code of conduct to a baptized disciple, which he did as follows: Mardane ne kehya; : tin batan tun kar : ik sir, to kes rakhne; duja pichli rat Satnam da jap japna, ar tisra eh ke sadh sant anvda janvde dl seva tshal karni. (J.M.S. p. 457)
  8. Mulle Chaune da Sama Pundit meli aha, Mulla Same pundit da sevakal da dava rakhda aha. (J.B (LI) p. 98)