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From Damdama to Agra

The Guru left Damdama (Talwandi Sabo) for the Deccan on Kartik Sudi 5, 1763 Sammat (October 30, 1706). He waited for Daya Singh's return to Talwandi Sabo for some time, whom he had sent to Aurangzeb at Ahmednagar to deliver his letter Zafarnama; but he had not received any communication from him or his companion Bhai Dharam Singh. He, however, had received news that Bhai Daya Singh had to face a lot of difficulties, caused by the obstructionist tactics of Subedar Wazir Khan's hired persons who were specially deputed to scuttle the attempts of Bhai Daya Singh to meet the Emperor to deliver the letter personally. The Subedar did so because he thought that if Bhai Daya Singh could have an audience with the Emperor and succeeded in delivering the letter, it would arouse the moral conscience of the Emperor causing a lot more harm to him.

The Guru also got the inkling that the letter had been delivered and its contents had moved the Emperor.

Sensing change in the mood of Aurangzeb, he decided to move towards Deccan even before Daya Singh could reach Damdama (Talwandi Sabo). The most important factor that prompted him to take this decision was the fast failing health of the Emperor who was about ninety-one in 1706 and had been overtaken by illness. The Guru deemed it appropriate to go to Deccan himself and settle the affairs with the Emperor for which purpose Bhai Daya Singh had been sent with the letter.[1]

Though the exact number of Sikhs who accompanied the Guru toward Deccan is not known, yet, on the basis of accounts available to us, it is not difficult to surmise that it was quite large. Among them, a few notables were Man Singh, Ram Singh and Fateh Singh of Bhagtu family, Dharam Singh and Param Singh, the grandsons of Bhai Rupa. Rai Dalla also accompanied the Guru. As the Guru proceeded further, some of them went back to their homes, but even then the hard core was quite large: Mani Singh, Bhupat Singh from Amritsar, Sodhi Kanwal Nain from Dhilwan, Udey Karan, Gurdas Singh from Daburji, Bhai Bajjar Singh from Sodhara, Ram Singh and Tilok Singh from Phul, Godaie Singh from Bhucho, Dan Singh with his son from Ahlu, Ram Kaur from Ramdas.[2]

Enroute to Deccan, the first halt of Guru Gobind Singh was at village Kewal.[3] Then the Guru sojourned at village Jharori, wherefrom he proceeded to village Jhanda.[4] When the night fell, Fateh Singh and his brother Ram Singh left the Guru's camp. Rai Dalla placed his offerings comprising two gold bangles and one double-edged sword and slipped out of the Guru's camp to return to his native place. These people did so because they could not shed their attachment with their assets and their kith and kins. Some others too left the Guru fearing the discomforts of the arduous journey.

The Guru was surprised at the actions of Dalla particularly, because he had decided to prepare him for certain other tasks. When at dawn, he asked where Dalla was, someone amongst his followers said, "There is no Dalla-Malla, there is only Allah and the Guru," the theme being that, at that point of time, he was all alone, determined to carry out his mission in spite of high risks involved in the process.

The Guru remained calm and continued to march towards his destination.

He reached the township of Sirsa[5], now in the State of Haryana. People expressed their love and respect for the Guru by serving him and his Sikhs. In the course of granting audience to his Sikhs, he was told that one goldsmith named Gulab Singh had been imprisoned in an underground cell by Nabi Bakhsh, the Chaudhary of the village Khaudal. He had done so since Gulab Singh had refused to comply with the order of the Chaudhary to offer his daughter to cater to his carnal desires. The Guru mounted his steed and taking five Sikhs with him marched to the place. They freed Gulab Singh and chided the Chaudhary who out of fear prostrated at his feet. He forgave him and instructed him to shun terrorising the people. After visiting some neighbouring places such as Gobindpura, he came back to Sirsa.

From there, he reached Nauhar.[6] The people of this town were the votaries of Jainism. Instead of practising the high ethical principles of their religion, their whole emphasis lay upon the rejection of non-vegetarianism, which they thought was the only way to the path of bliss and social reconstruction. The Guru exposed the hollowness of their thinking and tried to make them understand the theory and practice and the ultimaticity of 'Non-violence'. Vegetarianism or non­vegetarianism are irrelevant to the process of building a good society as well as good individuals.

From Nauhar, he proceeded to village Bhadra,[7] where he was affectionately received by a Rajput family. The next halt of the Guru was at village Sahewa. During the course of travels, Dharam Singh and Param Singh carried the weapons and clothes of the Guru. They had resolved to prepare a fresh cot for him at his every halt.

Thence from, the Guru proceeded to Bahaduran. He now gave a horse each to Dharam Singh and Param Singh to enable them function more effectively. Thereafter he reached Sahena from where he proceeded to Madhu Singhnai. Bhai Ram Singh, a scion of Bhai Bhagtu, lost heart and beat a hasty retreat. The Guru sent his horseman thrice to dissuade him from leaving him but he remained adamant.

After this he reached Pushkar Raj[8], a place of pilgrimage and worship of Brahma. The place earlier had been made hallowed with a visit by Guru Nanak. Pandit Chetan Misar who was the incharge of the place gave a detailed account regarding Guru Nanak's visit. He fell at the Guru's feet, received Khande- ki-Pahul and joined the Khalsa brother-hood. In the neighbour­hood of Pushkar Raj, the Guru was asked a serious question about his dress, which neither looked Hindu nor Muslim. The Guru impressed upon them that his mission was both for the Hindus and Muslims and transcended all types of particularism. Therefore his dress exuded uniqueness of its own.

After this, he reached Narain Pur[9] also known as Dadu Dwara where the saint Dadu had lived and flourished. His shrine, by this time, had come under the charge of Mahant Jait Ram. Jait Ram was astonished at the dress and demeanour of the Guru and remarked in surprise, "Lord, no doubt, you have saved Hinduism but your mode of thinking and style of living were not appropriate." Daduji used to say,

Dadu, surrender thy claim to every worldly things, pass thy days without claims.

How many have departed after trading in this grocer's shop (which is the world).[10]

The Guru retorted:

Assert thy claim in the world

Extirpate the wicked who doeth thee evil.

The Mahant quoted two other couplets of Dadu;

Be satisfied with this Kal Age.

If anyone throws a clod or a brick at thee, lift it on thy head.[11]

The Guru would not admit the last line and altered it thus:

If anyone throws a clod or a brick at thee

Angrily, strike him with a stone.[12]

"Daduji was an ascetic and at best did everything for his own liberation. On the other hand, the Guru's house is people's house. He believes in balanced and integrated development of the people both at individual and social levels. Sikhism promises riddance from all types of social, cultural, political and religious tyrannies. When Jogis, Brahmins, Khatries, Vaish, and others could not do anything to uplift the people, Sikh Panth came into being. We are committed to reconstruction of a society based on dignity of labour, truth, sharing of wealth and having complete faith in Akal Purkh.” Jait Ram understood the import of the Guru's message and mission and expressed his agreement with him. He was so overwhelmed that he requested him to have meals at this Ashram. The missionary in him again burst forth. "You believe in strict vegetarianism, while we have no such prejudice. Whatever suits our soul and body, we take. We can't help serving meat to our hawks who can't do without it."

Regarding granting of arms to the Khalsa, the Guru explained that:

"The age is full of evils. The wicked rule in it and cause suffering to saints and holy men. Tyrants, therefore, deserve to be punished. They will not refrain as long as they are pardoned. O Mahant, they who bear arms, who remember the true name and sacrifice their lives for their faith shall go straight to paradise. Therefore I have established the Khalsa religion (brotherhood), given my followers arms and made them heroes."[13]

After this the Guru reached Kalot via Lali and Magharoda.

Bhai Daya Singh and Dharam Singh on way back from Deccan met him and related to him their experiences in the Deccan. The Emperor's Gurz-bardar and Mansabdar had gone ahead towards Delhi with the royal firman for Munim Khan while Bhai Daya Singh and Dharam Singh came to the Guru. At Bhagaur, about 70 miles North-East of Udaipur city the headquarter of a Parganah in the erstwhile Udaipur State, the Guru heard the news of the death of Aurangzeb at Ahmednagar on the 28th of Zi-Qada 1118H (February 20, 1707).[14]

A small skirmish in the neighbourhood of Bhagaur, a day or two before the Guru's march out from there in which the two Zamindars and a couple of Sikhs were killed is said to have taken place on March 17-19, 1707.[15] The Guru's decision to stop moving further towards South was warranted by the changes in political scenario. Aurangzeb having gone from the scene for ever, further march towards the South would not serve any purpose as he would not be able to build bridges of understanding and reconciliation between the Sikhs and the Mughal government nor could he arrange that the guilty Subedar, Wazir Khan, was appropriately punished. He therefore, decided to wait and watch.

The war of succession among the late emperor's sons had begun. Prince Muazzam (Bahadur Shah) was in Jamraud, a few miles away from Peshawar when his father died. Azam Shah (Tara Azam) who was in Deccan with his father at the time of his death assumed command of the Imperial army and proclaimed himself as the next Emperor.

Bahadur Shah too marched from Jamraud to assert his claim to the throne. He left Jamraud in the last week of March, 1707, and reached Peshawar on the last day of the month. Munim Khan his trusted Governor at Lahore, had kept the troops in readiness for the long awaited war of succession and welcomed Muazzam who was formally declared Emperor before he entered Lahore. Collecting men and money from the officials of the Mughal government in that part of the Empire, he reached Delhi by end of May. Wazir Khan, the Faujdar of Sirhind, had contributed eight lakhs. Mohammad Muazzam left Delhi in the first week of June, took possession of treasures at Agra and moved towards Dholpur to confront Azam Shah, his rival claimant to the throne, who alongwith a huge army and his very intelligent and valorous son, Bidar Bakhat, was fast marching to this place.

On the way to Delhi, Muazzam, who had first-hand knowledge of the Guru's valour and his influence in the Punjab, especially among the Sikhs, thought it appropriate to seek his help, partly to avoid any Sikh trouble while he was busy in war of succession, and partly to use the Sikhs in his cause. The Guru's contemporary Sainapat in Sri Gursobha says that the Guru was approached for help by Muazzam's emissaries.[16] Bhai Jodh Singh, in his work Sri Kalghidhar Hulas says that Prince Muazzam deputed Nand Lai to persuade the Guru to join with his Sikhs promising at the same time on behalf of Bahadur Shah that he would look into and redress grievance, he might have against his house.[17] The Guru read the letter and also listened to the pleadings of Bhai Nand Lai. Though he was not sure of Bahadur Shah keeping his words once victory was his, yet he decided to help him.

While reaching this decision, the Guru seemed to have been prompted by certain considerations. First, Bahadur Shah was a generous, munificent and extremely good-natured prince. His tolerance and amiability were in great contrast to the bigotry and hypocrisy of his predecessor, Aurangzeb. The Guru had himself seen that in spite of his father's instructions, he had refused to act against the Guru in 1695. The Guru, therefore, thought that if he won the battle of succession, he would be more amenable to liberal influences, especially his own. Secondly, as per law of primogeniture, which was prevalent among the Mughal rulers, Bahadur Shah being the eldest of the three living brothers (Muazzam, Azam Khan and Kam Bakhsh) had a moral right to the throne of his father. Thirdly, Nand Lai held out full assurance on behalf of the Prince. Besides the Guru thought of influencing Bahadur Shah in the same way as he had envisaged a possible change of heart in the case of late emperor, Aurangzeb.

According to the author of the book Mulakat Da Parsang[18], Bahadur Shah personally called upon the Guru at Delhi on May 20, 1707 to implore him to assist him in his difficulty. The Guru agreed and deputed Kuldeepak Singh as a liaison officer who remained with the emperor up to the end of the Battle of Jajau on June 8, 1707. He also decided to send two or three hundred Sikh soldiers under the command of Bhai Dharam Singh to side with Bahadur Shah, as a token of his moral support.

At Delhi the Guru first stayed in a house located behind Humayun's tomb. The site is now marked by the Gurdwara known as 'Damdama Sahib'. As a token of love for a so called low caste of Delhi and to acknowledge and honour the valorous deeds of Bhai Jaita, the Guru shifted to the colony of cobblers called Mochi Bagh. The cobblers (Mochis) served the Guru with great devotion. The Guru was so much impressed by their high conduct that he changed the colony's name to Moti Bagh, the Garden of Pearls. A Gurdwara stands at this place. It lies on the Ring Road now called Mahatma Gandhi Road. When the Guru was in Delhi, a goldsmith supplicated for the boon of a son. He waited on him a few times. One day when the Guru was on his way to hunt in the neighbouring jungle, the goldsmith followed him along with the Sikhs. They had not gone far, when they saw a woman leaving a newly born male child in the bushes. The Guru asked the goldsmith to adopt the child but he did not. Later, the child was adopted by Mata Sundri the revered wife of the Guru who named him Ajit Singh.

The armies of Azam and Bahadur Shah clashed with each other on June 10, 1707 at Jajau, 24 kilometres from Agra. The fierce fire of joint armies of Bahadur Shah and the Guru wrought havoc in the ranks of Azam Shah and Bidar Bakhat. Bidar Bakhat was killed in action while Azam also fell victim to an arrow immediately after.

Bhai Jodh Singh in Kalghidhar Hulas and Giani Gian Singh in Twarikh Guru Khalsa hold that the Guru also reached the battle-field to assure Bahadur Shah a victory.[19] According to Bhai Jodh Singh, the Guru told the Prince, "Have faith, you will triumph.[20] Guru's word never goes in vain". The same author adds that the Guru pushed his horse near Azam’s elephant and killed him with his arrow.[21]

Muazzam inquired whose arrow had killed Azam. When the arrow was pulled out of his dead body, it was found to carry a gold-tip that the Guru had always attached with his arrows. After the defeat and death of Azam and his son, the Guru left for Delhi forthwith without even meeting the Emperor.

Bahadur Shah who now became the undisputed Emperor of India honoured the Sikhs who had taken part in the battle and gave precious gifts to each of them. He sent Bhai Dharam Singh to Delhi with a letter expressing his gratitude to the Guru for the help which he had rendered in the battle. The Emperor also invited him to Agra.

The residence of the Guru at Delhi became the focus of the Sikhs and non-Sikhs. He held congregation of the Sikhs twice daily. He himself visited Gurdwara Sis Ganj Sahib in Chandni Chowk, where his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, was martyred on November 11, 1675. The Guru also paid a visit to the site of Rakab Ganj where Guru Tegh Bahadur's headless body had been cremated by Lakhi Shah Lubana by setting his house on fire. The Guru raised a Gurdwara at that spot as a memorial to the unparalleled sacrifice of his father.

One day, he went to the jungle near Humayun's tomb for hunting. As chance would have it, Bahadur Shah who had made a hurried visit to Delhi, happened to be close by. One of the Emperor's elephants got excited and rushed towards the Sikhs who got panicky. The Guru asked the Sikhs to keep cool. In the meanwhile the Guru patted a trained he-buffalo which charged at the elephant striking fear in its mind, who, as a sequal, turned back. The Emperor felt sorry for the inconvenience caused by the elephant and expressed his indebtedness to the Guru. Gurdwara Damdama stands at the place which had been made sacred by the visit of the Guru.

After about a month's stay at Delhi, the Guru made preparations to leave for Agra in response to the invitation of the Emperor. He made appropriate arrangements for the stay of Mata Sundri at Delhi under the protection of the Sikhs. Mata Sahib Kaur, however, importuned him to allow her to accompany him. The Guru yielded to her request, ultimately.

On the third day after his departure from Delhi, he arrived at Mathura and encamped at Suraj Kund on the bank of River Jamuna.[22] He made a tour through Brindaban and visited all its famous places. Then he proceeded further to Agra.[23] He established his camp 12 kms short of Agra and about 6 kms from Bahadur Shah's camp.

Shortly after, Khan-i-Khanan, Munim Khan the Prime Minister invited the Guru to his palace situated in a beautiful garden. The Guru along with his brave Sikh soldiers, reached there. Munim Khan, Khan-i-Khanan and Prime Minister, accorded the Guru a hearty welcome and received him with all the honour due to his position and status of a 'Guru'. He told Guru ji that he had done a great favour to him by coming out to his place granting him an opportunity of his sacred glimpse.[24] The Guru came back and laid his camp nearby the same day. As the night fell, heavy rain poured down. The next day, he made a rapid reconnaissance and selected a garden where he and his followers decided to camp.[25]

The daily routine at the camp was that of a true Khalsa. Congregations were held twice a day where knowledge about Sikhism was imparted to the hordes of people who came to the camp from far and near.

On July 23, 1707 Bahadur Shah invited him to his court. The Guru and his Sikhs moved to the Royal presence. He was accompanied by his Sikh soldiers, but at the gate of the palace of the Emperor, he instructed them to stay back except one Sikh whom he took along with him to the place where the Emperor met him. The Guru was fully armed, impressively dressed with an aigrette fixed on his turban. His face looked resplendent[26] and his bearing charismatic. The Emperor thanked the Guru for his help in the battle and offered valuable presents to him. He distributed the presents to his Sikhs as well, just as he had done to his other generals. He honoured the Guru as a revered saint and requested him for his continued company as frequently as possible.[27] He was accompanied by two to three hundred horsemen and some more Sikhs on foot.[28] As a token of his respect for the Guru, the Emperor presented him with a rich robe of honour including a jeweled scarf, a Dhukh Dhukhi and an aigrette worth sixty thousand rupees. According to the long established custom, the Guru was to wear the robe of honour in the Royal presence. But he did not do so, rather asked one of his followers to carry it to his camp.[29] The Emperor did not mind this demeanour of his, for he treated him as a holy saint and not as his subordinate or dependent. According to Khazan Singh, another present of one lakh rupees was offered for Mata Sundri and sent to Delhi.[30]

The Guru stayed there for about five months. During this period the Emperor met him quite often, and sought solace from him. Their discussion often revolved around two subjects; religion and Sikh-Mughal relations.

One day, when the Guru was sitting with the Emperor, a Sayyed with a fantasised mind from Sirhind, in a bid to poison the mind of the Emperor against the Guru said to him, "Your Holiness, all the Pirs, Prophets and God incarnations have demonstrated their prowess through miracles. What do you say to that?" The Guru lifted his hand and pointed towards Bahadur Shah and said, "He is a living miracle. He who wields the political power can do what he likes."

"No, Your Holiness, I mean the other miracles," Sayyed said again.

"The other miracle is this one." Just as he said it, he tossed a gold coin on the floor. "It can procure anything in the world, any person, any value? Is it not?"

The Sayyed was trying to play the game of proving the Guru to be an inept person, so as to lower his esteem and respect in the eyes of the Emperor. He, therefore, requested him again. "Will your Holiness show us some miracle, which you can perform?[31]

"Yes", broke out the Guru like a warrior, with eyes red and pulling his sword out of his scabbard, "This is the highest of all the miracles." It takes the life out of the tyrant, can upturn the thrones and makes the Emperors helpless wanderers the next day.[32] The Sayyed thus became speechless with fear and his eyes cast on the ground.

The Emperor who was listening to the questions and answers with great interest reprimanded the questioner for his impudence. "No, No Excellency” he said, "You should not mind this impertinence on the part of the courtier."

As this news travelled, everyone was amazed at the fearlessness of the Guru even in the presence of the Emperor of the land in whose presence it was just not possible for anyone to appear around, much less draw the sword.

On some other day, Bahadur Shah said to the Guru, "There is no faith better than ours. Why should not those who want to escape hell embrace it." The Guru replied, "Your Majesty, it is not the stamp but what is under it that makes a coin worthwhile. Even if a counterfeit coin has your Majesty's creed imprinted upon it, no one will exchange it with even a low cost article in the market. So also is the case of faith. It is not the label but the contents of an individual that is pleasing to God, and which determines who is to be consigned to hell and who to heaven. I believe in one God, not two or three, and for me no one is an infidel save one who denies His presence."[33]

Views on many more issues touching different subjects must have been exchanged between the Guru and the Shah, but alas, there was no biographer to record them for the posterity to benefit.

What exactly transpired between the Guru and the Emperor during their meetings, we are not in a position to know; but even then circumstantial evidence and the Hukamnamas of the Guru help us establish a few facts. The visit of the Guru at first to Khan-i-Khanan, the Prime Minister, and then to Emperor Bahadur Shah himself, had evidently a much greater significance than ordinary courtesy call. The Guru had left the Punjab for the Deccan at the invitation of Aurangzeb for a personal interview with him. The only subject that could be discussed between them was the Mughal-Sikh relations— the causes of their estrangement, the ways and means of a peaceful solution of their problems and the implementation of the decisions arrived at between them. That alone again could be the subject of the Guru's talks with the Khan-i-Khanan and Emperor Bahadur Shah at Agra. The opportunity that had unfortunately been lost owing to the death of Aurangzeb had presented itself under cordial circumstances. The meeting with the Prime Minister and the Emperor had taken place in a very friendly atmosphere. Both were grateful to the Guru for his ungrudging response to their appeal for help in his struggle for accession to the throne and were happy over the success. Since no reliable details of discussions with them are available in any of the extant contemporary records, Persian or Punjabi, it cannot, therefore, be said with certainty as to what hopes were held out to the Guru by Bahadur Shah. But there is no denying the fact that the Guru was hopefully looking forward to a satisfactory conclusion of his negotiations with the Mughal Emperor and soon expected to return to Anandpur.

Regarding the objectives which the Guru had in his mind while negotiating with Bahadur Shah, many illogical and flimsy conclusions have been drawn. Accordingly to M.A. Macauliffe, "The Guru egged up by the spurt of revenge wanted Wazir Khan to be sentenced to death as per Muslim law. Dr. Hari Ram Gupta also opines similarly and according to him, the Guru wanted Wazir Khan of Sirhind, Sucha Nand, Diwan of Sirhind, Gangu Brahmin of Kheri, Jani and Mani of Morinda, Shams Khan of Bajwara, Mukarram Khan of Jalandhar and Dilawar Khan of Lahore to be delivered to him."

Both the scholars seems to have erred. They have not cared to consider the mission and his central tendency, nor have they based their conclusion on some reliable evidence. Harbouring revenge or taking resort to the revengeful acts was in sharp contrast to the personality and mission of the Guru. Revenge is an evil impulse and engenders hatred. Secondly, it has never solved any problem—much less the problem of improving human relationships and understanding. From the perusal of Zafarnama and other writings of the Guru, it is almost certain that the Guru did not want anything more from Bahadur Shah than was normally required, that the unjust and the oppressors of the people be removed from office or transferred to distant places to create peaceful conditions in the country. It was fundamental to Sikh religion that punishment was no solution to reform the sinner. The Guru had brought about the ethical awakening in Emperor Aurangzeb through his exemplary conduct and sacred words sent in the form of Zafarnama. Now he had all the hopes to change the attitude of Bahadur Shah who happily was made of nobler and sublimer stuff as compared to his father. In all likelihood, the issue of his resettling at Anandpur was also broached by the Guru.

The Guru's point-of-view seemed to have elicited affirmative response from the Emperor, but Hill Chiefs of Shivalik and Wazir Khan, the Faujdar of Sirhind were not amiable to the development.

Therefore, the Guru issued instructions in the first week of October, 1707 to his Sikhs in the Punjab to join him fully armed on his arrival in Kahlur. To this fact, we have a very reliable piece of documentary evidence in the Guru's own letter, dated October 2, 1707 addressed from the neighbourhood of Agra to the Sikhs of Dhaul. Translated into English, the letter reads as follows:

FROM THE TENTH GURU

To the Sangat of Dhaul. You are my Khalsa. The Guru shall protect you. Repeat Guru, Guru. With all happiness, we came to the Padshah. A dress of honour and a jeweled Dhukh Dhukhi worth Sixty thousand was presented to us. With the Guru's grace the other things are also progressing (satisfactorily). In a few days, we are also coming. My instructions to the entire Khalsa Sangat are to remain united. When we arrive in Kahlur, the entire Khalsa should come to our presence fully armed. He Who will come shall be happy. Sammat 1764[34], Kartik 1st.

The letter points to some other aspects, besides giving reference to the Guru's visit to Emperor Bahadur Shah, who presented to him a costly dress of honour. The other aspects could only be the friendly negotiations for a change in the century-old hostile attitude of the Mughals towards the Sikh Gurus. From the attitude of the Emperor during the interviews, the Guru seemed to have formed the impression that his negotiations would soon be concluded to his satisfaction, facilitating his early return to Anandpur. The only elements to be adversely affected, directly or indirectly, by the implementation of the peaceful settlement between the Emperor and the Guru were the Hill Rajas of the Shivalik and Nawab Wazir Khan of Sirhind. To meet any emergency that might be created by them on his return to Anandpur and in Kahlur state, the Guru had asked the Sikhs to join him fully armed. The irrefutable evidence of the letter also repudiates the conjecture that the Guru had left the Punjab either in despair or to arouse the Rajputs and Marathas against the Mughals. If the accidental change in the circumstances due to Prince Kam Bakhsh's rebellion in Hyderabad had not taken the Guru to the Deccan along with the Emperor with whom the negotiations referred to above were still in progress, he would have returned to the Punjab in all probability.

Notes and References

[1]   Sainapat, Sri Gursobha, XIV, pp. 2-6.

Sakhi Pothi , No. 105, p. 116.

[2] Swarup Singh Kaushish, Guru Kian Sakhian, p. 187.

[3] Fauja Singh, Atlas Travels of Guru Gobind Singh, p. 18.

[4] M.A. Macauliffe, The Sikh Religion, Vol. V, p. 226; Ishar Singh Nara, Safarnama and Zafamama, p. 8.

[5] Fauja Singh, op.cit., p. 18.

[6] M.A. Macauliffe, The Sikh Religion, Vol. V, p. 226.

Fauja Singh, Atlas Travels of Guru Gobind Singh, p. 18.

[7] Ibid.

[8] M.A. Macauliffe, op.cit., Vol. V, pp. 227-228.

[9] M.A. Macauliffe, The Sikh Religion, Vol. V, pp. 227-228.

[10] Ibid., Vol. VI, pp. 227-28.

[11] M.A. Macauliffe, The Sikh Religion, Vol. VI, pp. 228-29.

[12] Ibid.

[13] Ibid., pp. 229-31.

[14] Sri Gursobha, Stanza 622.

[15] Garja Singh (ed.), Shaheed Bilas, p. 72.

[16] Sainapat, Sri Gursobha, (ed.) Shamsher Singh Ashok, p. 114.

[17] Jodh Singh, Sri Kalghidhar Hulas, pp. 203-05.

[18] Punjab, Past & Present XVII-I, April 1983, Guru Gobind Singh—the Last Phase by Ganda Singh, p. 4, see footnote.

[19] Giani Gian Singh, Twarikh Guru Khalsa, Part I, (Pbi), pp. 1078-1080.

[20] Ibid., pp. 1078-1081.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Sainapat, Sri Gursobha, p. 118, (ed.) Shamsher Singh Ashok.

[23] Ibid.

[24] Ibid., p. 119.

[25] I bid.

[26] Sainapat, Sri Gursobha, p. 112.

[27] Ibid., p. 121.

[28] Khafi Khan, Muntakhab-ul-Lubab, p. 652.

[29] Sainapat, op.cit., p. 121; Ganda Singh, Makhiz-i-Twarikh-i-Sikhan, p. 82.

[30] A news-letter of the Court of Bahadur Shah dated July 24, 1707 says 'Gobind-Nanak, according to orders fully armed interviewed the Emperor and offered one hundred gold coins. He was granted a robe of honour including a jewelled scarf, a Dhukh Dhukhi, an aigrette. Khazan Singh, History of the Sikh Religion, p. 201, Also consult Giani Gian Singh, Twarikh Guru Khalsa, Part I (Pbi.), pp. 1083-84.

[31] M.A. Macauliffe, The Sikh Religion, Vol. V, pp. 230-32.

[32] Ibid., p. 232.

[33] M.A. Macauliffe, The Sikh Religion, Vol. VI, pp. 232-34.

[34] Ganda Singh, Hukamname, p. 186, Hukamnama No. 63.