News & Updates

October 23, 2017


Jats and Sikh Militarization - Refutes the assertion that Sikh militarization was due to influx of Jats in the Sikh fold. 


August 24, 2017


Kurukshetra Sakhi and Meat – Debunks the theory that Guru Sahib advocated meat eating at Kurukshetra through revealed Shabads of ‘Maas Maas Kar’.


Check Past Updates

Find Us On...

Find Sikhism: Sikh Religion, Beliefs, Philosophy and Principles on FacebookFind Sikhism: Sikh Religion, Beliefs, Philosophy and Principles on Twitter


Guru Gobind Singh’s earthly life spanned nearly forty- two years. During this period his accomplishments were many-fold and had a deep impact on the contemporary society. His personal example and his ideology both were a watershed in the history of mankind. He brought to culmination and perfection what his predecessors had preached, practised, up-held and then institutionalised the same, so that these might continue to play their role in the Society. He improved upon the inistitutions of Guru Ka Langar, Sangat and Kirtan et al. The conceptual frame-work, in respect of some of them, were made more comprehensive, more clear and even more wide-ranging. For instance Sangat was connoted as Panth and Guru Ka Langar became the mainstay of Sikh economic edifice. He abolished Masand system that had outlived its utility and it had become rife with corruption, loose morals, unscrupulousness, jobbery and schismatic activities of its officials. Instead he established a wide network of Sangats connected directly with the Guru or Bani. Such Sangats that had linked themselves with the Guru without any intermediary were known as Khalsa. The individuals also were referred to as such if they too forged direct links with the Guru. To keep such Sangats and individuals vibrant and firm in their faith in the Guru, the Guru sent his special agents off and on. They were however asked to be guided by the Word as enshrined in Sri Guru Granth Sahib. These steps engendered compactness and solidarity among the Sikhs besides strengthening their bond with the Guru and his ideology. This being the perspective, sects such as Ram Rayyas, Minas, Dhirmalias could not substantially harm the Sikh religion as well as Sikh society.

As the compactness of the Sikhs grew, they ceased to be a force hostile to the growth of Sikh movement, ideologically as well as socially.

Lest this contemplated compactness go loose and astray, he institutionalised it on the 29th March, 1699 on the Baisakhi day. He set afloat a new Order to be called Khalsa consisting of people—males/females, knit together in the love of the Almighty and the commitments to be new men and women with new vision of society, transcendental in their out-look and actions. They would be free from the bondages of lineage and social-spiritual inheritance, believing in oneness of God, His fatherhood of mankind and unity of mankind on basis of spiritual and social equality as their faith, ever seeking guidance from no one other than Guru Gobind Singh and Sri Gum Granth Sahib. Each Khalsa like the Khalsa as a social category was expected to behave, believe and act as per the norms, laid down by the Guru for the Khalsa brotherhood to be observed at macro level. Such institutionalised form of the Khalsa was obviously a novel social model of society as well as of an individual; whose field of action was neither confined to any geographical boundaries, nor a race or a creed but the whole mankind. Khalsa ideals were therefore cast and moulded on ethics which did not recognise any social or religious boundary and political particularism, but was rooted in ecumenical conscience—transformed as such by the message of the Guru that urged the Khalsa to base it on the spiritual vision of the Guru typified in the following utterance, "He is Father and we all are His children." It was in this background that he never occupied any territory even though he could do so. Later on when the Khalsa had to wage war against the Mughals and the Afghans, the dominant impulse was to establish such a society that might reflect the lofty teachings of the Guru.

Such doings were obviously no ordinary achievements. These were certainly historical milestones. The list of Guru's achievements is not exhausted with what has been registered above. His contributions to metaphysical thought were a landmark. He propounded the concept of Reality with more clarity and forthrightness. His relationship with man and universe brought out clearly its distinctiveness and differentiation vis-a-vis other prevalent concepts and traditions. The Guru wrote a full poem Jaap in which he enumerated numerous names of God, each one symbolising one of His attributes. One gathers impression that Guru's God was absolute and also attributed. He was transcendental and immanent at the same time. He in His immanent aspect as a spirit permeates and pervades the whole universe. In the Guru's thinking, the absolute-in-itself is indeterminate, but it also becomes determinate as Karta Purkh. This being so, the absolute has determinate relationship with man and the phenomenal reality with His world of time and space. It was under the impact of this conviction that the Guru used many names for God which reveal that God functioned in the world among the terrestrial beings and for certain purposes which were not only spiritual but mundane as well but always within a certain design. From this, it also follows that the Guru's Supreme Reality admits Supreme Being not as a determinate being or as a creative spirit but also the reality of determinate things in the realm of becoming. Thus the Guru reckoned that world and God had organic relationship expressed in unity of spirit in which the individual retains his subjectivity and individuality. Man of the world being emanation of God and determinate beings, could not be valueless as had been held for a long time in Indian idealistic tradition. Rather they had a role to play to achieve certain goals. To be righteous and to establish righteousness at all costs, and so see that the whole world followed righteousness was an article of faith with the Guru.

In the Vedantic tradition of Indian thought, the identity of the individual self and the universal self means only the identity of the two in their abstract beingness and not in their organic wholeness. Atma is a part or form of Brahma. The identity relationship between the two being that enclosed in space and outer, unbounded external space. The enclosedness of space corresponds to the embodiment of Brahm-Atma in human form. Salvation here would obviously mean the knowledge that the inner and outer are identical in nature. This is self-transcendence to a state of abstract being, where the self loses its organic existentiality, its subjectivity and its Namrupa individuality. In Ramanuja's Theistic Vedanta also, the determinate (Namrup) existential reality of the self is sought to be merged into the absolute as an inflowing river becomes one with the ocean without retaining its distinctiveness. In Sikhism this is not so. Individual and the absolute have an identity but it is in nature of an organic relationship expressed in the unity of spirit where individual retains its individuality as also its subjectivity, the two forms being united in the oneness of spirit and certainly not dualistic or antagonistic. Self-transcendence here means self-realisation in union with God.

"The human state, being the body form is therefore not a fall. It is a Karmic punishment, in the shape of separation from Brahman. It is rather a God-given opportunity which the self through self-realisation has to transform from an 'object' into 'subject' full of self-consciousness and will-power. He comes to partake the qualities of the Divine given by the ethical attributes of Godhead in Jaap. He, as such, becomes prepared as a self-conscious instrument for realising the Divine Will on earth. A prior identity of spirit between the self and the absolute becomes an identification of the individual and the Divine Will. At this stage the victory of a man in righteous action as a categorical imperative is seen as the victory of the Divine "Wahe Guru Ji Ka Khalsa Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh." The righteous actions are to be performed imperatively on planet Earth, which is not to be shunned and treated abhorrently. Rather it should be respected as the veritable field for man to realise the self within as part of Self. The self-realisation or realising reality is different from that which is understood and made out in Indian idealistic tradition. Brahma is not only Sat Chit but Anand also, which means a state of harmony, calmness, equilibrium and equipoise. In fact this characteristic of Brahma flows from its homogeneity given by underlying spatial conception of time. Therefore it has no historicity. In individual life the principle of harmony takes the form of Nirvana in Budhism and Smadhi in Yoga. The corresponding state in Sikhism being Sahaj Avastha but with a qualitative difference. This is not a state of passive but a dynamic active equilibrium which in fact means orderliness of cosmos. That orderliness which comes into being in consonance with Hukm or Divine Will. Such will is not static and is always at work both from outside and inside human beings, impelling them to move towards a purposeful direction. In the Guru's thinking, matter in some mysterious union with consciousness conceives and comes to partake of the three principles namely organisation, development and disintegration -which operate the universe from within thereby making it an autonomous world with inherent temporal processes, programmed for God's design. The external will, having once charged into universe, works as the internal law (Hukm) 6f the autonomous world. "What he willed, He put into the world once for all."

From this, it follows that in Sikhism the process of change is religiously valid. All changes or developments are also accepted as real. It was created in consonance with Hukm that permeates it as a spirit. Certainly material world is not permanent but it is not unreal at the same time. Thus perceived permanence (The continuation of a thing in its original state of being all the time) is no more equated with Reality.

Metaphysical thoughts of the Guru especially about Reality, man, universe and their inter-relatiohship formed the foundation for a fresh model of society, value pattern and polity that were markedly novel. These were progressive and highly conducive to the onward development o'f mankind at all levels, local, national and international.- God/ man and society began to be looked upon as bound together in organic wholeness.

The Universe, time and space being both creation and abode of the Divine, came to be looked upon as real. The self in relation to God retained its Namrup existentiality. The union with Divine meant the union of spirit and not the self-­submerging unity of substance. Salvation thus came to be seen as self-realisation in the absolute sense and riot self-annihilation. The self, in relation to society, kept intact its individuality and no more was required to be subsumed under holistic categories of society (say of caste). The innate goodness of man was stressed upon. Evil was derived not from the aboriginal sinful nature of man or the Karmic recompense, or the state of embodiment of dissociated Atman in phenomenal form. It was rather traced back to the contingent imperfection and perversion of social system, with a belief in the essential perfectibility of society through collective, organised social effort.

In consonance with such thinking, the Guru redefined and redesigned the role which one was expected to play as an individual and as a component of the society. As an individual, he must purgate himself of the evil impulses and elevate himself by fine tuning himself/herself with the Supreme Reality to realise that he was a part of the same as a ray of light is no different than as its source. Full realisation of the Self would mean state of equipoise or of bliss. But he is not to treat himself aloof from the creation. He should feel and realise that the Divine spirit residing in him is also permeating in his fellow beings. To reach this stage he was required not to resort to miracle, wrong beliefs, rituals, fasts, pilgrimages, egoistic activities but to meditate, contemplate and realise the all-pervading spirit of God within and to act in the light thereof. By pleading and exhorting as such, the Guru, once for all, broke the unnecessary fetters and shackles of clericalism, Karam-Kand, outmoded, hackneyed religio-social formulations especially about Reality and his relation: with human beings. Perhaps for the first time, in the history jpf religions in India, the Guru very explicitly put forth that, (p the process of self- realisation and self-illumination, one need no intermediary and the only course is the elevation of man through self-effort not outside this world but within it.

Since self-effort on earth cannot be an isolated act, one has to take care of the people around. Since all have spirit of God within them, there should be natural affinity between one another, something that has to be discovered and realized. This spiritual realization is the foundation of a model society in the reckoning of the Guru. Therefore the Guru suggests umpteen times through his compositions and actions that one should not lose sight of this fact while working and functioning in the world. It was from this perspective that the Guru squarely and roundly condemned caste system, being discriminatory in its functioning. This system was also denounced for its being wrongly considered Divine and therefore predetermined and confirmed for all times. The upward movement of the lower sections into the higher levels of society could only be through a cultural process named as Sanskritisation by M.K. Srinivas. According to it, a lower caste, having circumstantially acquired wealth or power would be admitted into the higher structure of the caste bound society only after he gives up its original identity, emulate and adopt the caste denominations, identity and behaviour pattern of the higher castes. The Guru totally rejected this approach. He provided social equality, moral sanctity, and veritable mobility for the so-called lower classes and sections of society in their own right and with their own self-identity.

Denying equality in terms of sexes, classes and professions, was also rejected by the Guru as grossly unspiritual and totally violative of Sikh social ethics. The ultimate goal of Sikh social ethics was to build egalitarian, harmonious, non-exploitive, free from fetters of clericalism, superstitious society. A society that is filled with and fired by the mission to strive both at individual and corporate levels to enable people feel confident and filled with the spirit of elevating the Standard of the community (Sarbat Da Bhala).

In Sikh parlance such society was the Khalsa society whose each member was designated Khalsa. It was formally brought into existence on the Baisakhi of 1699. Khalsa was a model of humanity on the lines of divinity and the Khalsa society was the model society as the Almighty had ordained. The Guru was so proud of it that he exclaimed that God Himself has created it out of his own Will. Khalsa as an individual also filled the Guru with sense of satisfaction—so much so that Guru considered him as his own limb and his own life.

And very rightly the Guru perceived as such. Was it not Khalsa, an ideal being, committed to the ordainment of the Guru and pledged to their implementation till their last breath ? Was not the Khalsa society a model society pledged to act and cast itself in social ethics as propounded by the Guru? It was not to work on any narrow particularistic principle for a particular region or country—rather it was to work for God's cause whose notion and arena of action had been clearly delineated by Guru Gobind Singh. Any cause of righteousness was God's cause and righteousness in the Guru's reckoning was anything that helped people to blossom and fructify in the light of the supreme Spirit. Obviously actions which aim at the destruction of the evil forces or obstruct the progress of the Khalsa society to its cherished destination are righteous. Such actions include even the use of arms albeit as a last resort. In this context, the Guru's views were clear and are embodied in the following verse of Zafarnama.

Chun kar az hama hilte dar guzasht.

Halal ast burdan ba shamshir dast.

"When all means fail, it is legitimate to make use of sword."

The Khalsa society was the objectification of what the Khalsa stood for, an organization of the Khalsa, a model social pattern, a methodology of revitalising decadent society and civilization, the latter being the discovery of Arnold Toynbee who regarded Khalsa society as a proper response to the decaying Indian civilization but which unfortunately could not come out of its womb. But it did signify many important points.

Firstly—it considered itself sovereign, fearless and free, accountable only to God; Sovereign of the Sovereigns. It rejected the notion of political sovereignty vesting either in the king as his Divine right, or in a state or in any party. Instead it favoured sovereignty to vest in the collectively expressed will of the people.

Secondly—it was averse to homogenization of group identities into monastic uniformity. On social level, this means that a group has an inviolable right to participate in its corporate capacity in the body politic of the society or to express it otherwise. Khalsa society would accord full respect to religio-cultural and political pluralism.

Thirdly—each member of the Khalsa society was made to feel that he/she was not different from the Guru. In fact, the Guru demonstrated perfect equality between the Master and Disciple by receiving Pahul at the hands of his disciples and by implication awarding Divine status to man.

The step was unique and unparalleled because never before in the history of any religion or nation, master had ever declared Master-Disciple identity discrimination. On this account Bhai Gurdas Singh became lyrical and could not help praising the Guru as Waryam Akela (Hero Unique) and Master- Disciple, incomparable and unsurpassable. The Guru sanctified common humanity condemned and despised for millennia by those code-makers who chose to forget the common origin of man from the Divine essence and invented instead a new fiction whereby the poor labouring folk were ordained to be born servitors in this world and condemned to a place away from redemption in the world hereafter.

The Khalsa society as profiled above was very clear about the Reality of God. His omnipotence, His relationship with man, its ultimate goal of improving the lot of the whole man­kind through righteous deeds, its unflinching faith in the protectiveness of God, it’s being model in its objectives and configuration, its individual and social ethics, its democratic vision, its unique polity which vested sovereignty in the people, its equalitarianism, its universalistic outlook.

From its very inception Khalsa Panth came into clash with all those forces—which clashed with the Khalsa ideals. It had to face Mughal state believing in absoluteness of the power of its sovereign who was committed to implement Shariat in toto, and convert the whole of India into the land of Islam. In such a state, non-Muslims were subjected to a variety of severities so that they might feel constrained to embrace Islam. After a long drawn-out fight, the Khalsa Panth succeeded in thwarting their nefarious designs in the Punjab, the region where it had entrenched itself. It had to fight another enemy in one of the renowned invader and statesman of Asia, Ahmed Shah Abadali. Against him too, the Khalsa Panth achieved remarkable successes. At least in the region from the Khaiber to the suburb of Delhi, people were made to breathe the air of freedom. Also, it had to face violent opposition from the orthodox Hindu elements who too vehemently opposed the Khalsa ideals. The Guru had to fight battles against the Rajput rulers of Hill states of Shivalik and Kumaon regions of the Himalayas who spearheaded Hindu conservative elements. At long last, the Guru succeeded in blunting the edge of their orthodoxy when many of them entered the Khalsa Panth. The Hindu conservatives by and large, stopped opposing the Khalsa Panth openly and violently but the change in their attitude reflected more of expediency than the appreciation of their ideology.

All through the difficult period of trials and tribulations, the Khalsa society showed remarkable courage, spirit of sacrifice, extraordinary resoluteness, very high standard of morality and personal character. These facts find appropriate attestation even from a person who was an enemy of the Khalsa. He was Qazi Nur Mahammad who came to India with Ahmed Shah Abdali's seventh invasion of the country (1764-65) and was an eye-witness to the Sikh battles with the invader. In his poetic account of the Durrani's invasion, in Persian language, he referred to the Sikhs in a rude and derogatory language but could not at the same time help proclaiming their many natural virtues. He said :

"Do not call them 'dogs' (his contumelious term for the Sikhs), for they are lions, and are courageous like lions in the field of battle. If you have to learn the art of war, 'come and face them in the field.' They will demonstrate it to you in such a way that one and all will praise them for it. Singh is a title (a form of address) for them. If you do not know the Hindustani language, I shall, tell you that the word 'Singh' means a lion. Truly, they are like lions in the battlefield and in times of peace, they surpass Hatim in generosity."

"Leaving aside their mode of fighting, there was another point in which they excel all other martial people. In no case would they slay a coward, nor would they put an obstacle in the way of a fugitive. They do not plunder the wealth and ornaments of a woman, be she a well-to-do lady or a maid­servant. There is no adultery among these 'dogs'. They do not make friends with adulterers and house breakers."

Ultimately they succeeded in the establishment of their sovereign state. Their success was due to the inspiration of the Gurus and their ideology of guaranteeing all round integrated development of individuals as well as of the whole man-kind. This fact is amply borne by the different coins issued by Banda Singh Bahadur and Sikh misaldars. They had been issued in the name of the Guru. The inscriptions in Persian, the official language of the day, stated:

By the Grace of the True Lord is struck the coin in the two worlds. The sword of Nanak is the guarantee of all desires and victory is of Guru Gobind Singh, the King of the kings.

The reverse carried an inscription (in Persian) in praise of the new capital described as 'city of peace'. An official seal was introduced for authentication of state documents. It had an inscription (in Persian).

The Kettle and Sword (symbols of Prosperity and power) and victory and ready patronage have been obtained from Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh.

The First Khalsa Sovereign state was formed by Banda Singh Bahadur in the Punjab which was destroyed by the Mughal power. Even this reverse did not break the morale of the Sikhs which had its nourishment from the Khande-ki-Pahul of Guru Gobind Singh. They again rose and re-established their sovereignty, this time under Misaldars who after some time instead of working in the light of the teaching of the Guru succumbed to the temptation of behaving like absolute monarchs displaying all evils of the decadent Mughal rulers. The result was that their territories were grabbed by one of them, Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

His was a monarchy which was in reality an aberration because a military monarchy was far from anything that the tenth Guru had contemplated. Neither the Misl Chiefs nor the Maharaja respected the spirit of selection based Panch Pardhani democracy which was the essence of Guru Gobind Singh's concept.

The military monarch could not liquidate the spirit and the vision of the model society, that the Sikhs had inherited from Guru Gobind Singh and his predecessors. When the political system organized by Ranjit Singh broke down after his death, Sikh soldiers realised the gravity of the situation and their religious consciousness led them to the conclusion that the Khalsa alone, not the selfish and short-sighted nobility, guided by the tradition of the Misl period or the puppet swayed by court intrigues, could save the sovereign state. The old democratic tradition, submerged for more than half a century reasserted itself. The army, organized in Panchayats, assumed the charge with deliberate intention of doing what the leadership had failed to do. That they would fail was inevitable. They were not strong enough to resist the combined onslaught of British Imperialism and the self-seeking Sikh aristocracy. But through their efforts, the essence of Sikhism based in Guru Gobind Singh's ideology emerged triumphant even though the Sikh state succumbed to an alien power. Their ideals, vision of society and sense of mission never allowed the Khalsa to be passive. Rather they were actuated to be ever dynamic participant in the activities of the world for the righteousness to prevail. This finds its testimony in Akali Movement (1920-25) which was essentially movement against the evils that had plagued the Khalsa Panth rendering it static and unprogressive. It was also against those who helped the evil designs to continue and corrode the import of the Guru's ideology. Their participation in freedom struggle of India was also epitomic of their faith in the Guru's ideology which clashed with the oppressiveness of the Imperial structure of the British colonial rule. In the present day world, the Khalsa Panth in spite of various allurements and entanglements continues to be stirred by Guru Gobind Singh's example and his mission.

The Guru’s ideological impact was not confined to his followers alone. It touched a vast spectrum of people, even beyond the land of the five rivers, in the whole sub-continent. The Guru's vitriolic comments on Hindus' understanding of Reality and His relations with human beings, their social philosophy and social formulation and their recognition of rituals and ceremonies etc. as the legitimate artifices for regeneration and ultimate emancipation caused a ferment among many of the Hindus who when juxtaposed their cherished institution and concepts with those of the Guru found substance in what the Guru said. Naturally, they re-evaluated their religious and social heritage against the background of their sad plight to bring about necessary changes in their thought pattern as well as in their social structures. The result was that caste system, Hindu ritual- system and many other ceremonies were considered meaningless and irrelevant to the integrated growth of the society and thus were blatantly questioned. The Hindu traditional religious elites, the Brahmins were thoroughly exposed as totally ignorant and unprogressive, who since long had shackled the human spirit in unnecessary labyrinth of artifices to cater to their own selfishness and to maintain their high status. They also questioned the sacred literature including various Dharamshastras that propped up Hindu social and political structures.

The awakened Hindus reacted in two ways : Firstly, many of them entered the fold of Sikhism. This happened in the Punjab and its peripheries where Sikhism was originated and matured under the personal care of the Gurus. Secondly, quite a large number of them were prompted to reform the Hindu society. Their feelings were amply reflected in the Hindu literature of; the medieval times. Much of the literature exposed malaise in the Hindu society and the key causes of the same. Their general observation was that apart from the oppression of the Muslim imperialists aiming at destruction and dislocating of Hindu society and religion, the inner causes such as irrelevant social institutions and the rigid clerication et al confused spiritual thinking, especially about Reality and His relationship with the world were no less responsible for it. Quite a number of the Hindu scholars from various corners of India reached Anandpur, Paonta and Talwandi Saboke. They re-wrote old classics including Ramayan, Mahabharta, Krishanavtar, Chatyli Charitar I, Chandi Charitar II. Their main thrust seemed to'l&p to present the characters in these classics not as divine beings but as heroes committed to the righteous causes and living in the world like other mortals. Krishna Avtar, Ram Avtar, Chandi—all were heroes in the sense that they upheld the cause of goodness even at the risk of their lives. The underlying purpose of these writers was to make the people feel self-dependent, bolder and courageous by themselves and to feel free from beliefs and the shackles of the irrelevant social and religious institutions.

This emphasis led to the emergence of certain fresh religio-social formulations and formations. In religious and social spheres, the rigid caste-hierarchy began to be challenged both as social organisation and a spiritual artifice. Idol worship began to be questioned. The multitude of gods and goddesses began to be questioned as the possessors of absolute powers.

Instead, God as the Supreme deity began to be apprehended as their Creator as also of all other things in the world. Such a scenario was visible in the hymns of Bhakti Saints and their followers. In certain parts of India, these notions led to the rise of new social and political movements. Satnamis of Namaul (in present-day Haryana) and the rise of Marhattas under the inspiration and leadership of Shivaji and Peshwa were such examples.

This trend has continuously been buttressed. As late as twentieth century, Rabinder Nath Tagore, Swami Vivekanand and Aurobindo Ghosh—considered wise men among the Hindus—admired Guru Gobind Singh for showing paths to Hindus to preserve their identity through reforming themselves. It is altogether another matter that they did not take notice of the new premises of the Guru's formulations to form a new variety of humanity named Khalsa by the Guru.

The Muslims also could not escape the impact of the Guru. The Muslims of Sufi persuasions saw very many valid points in his teachings. Quite a number of them for instance, Bhikhan Shah, Pir Budhu Shah and Pir Mohammad, Nahar Khan, Gani Khan and Nabi Khan turned highly appreciative of the Guru and took pleasure in rendering help to him even in the most critical moments. Sunni Muslims especially those under the influence of Naqshbandis were highly fidgeted at the Khalsa dispensation as it clashed with their long cherished political and social concepts and practices. They expressed themselves in taking rigid position vis-a-vis the Sikhs with the result that instead of reforming themselves, they made resolve to put an end to the Khalsa Panth which they labelled as Biddat. It was unfortunate that Indian Muslim Society displayed no tractability to make corrections in their thinking and behaviour. Rather it clung more tenaciously to their beliefs in Shariat, Dar- ul-Islam and Jehad in the sense of crusades against non- Muslims to convert them to Islam or to extirpate them. This approach made the energies of the Muslims flow into channels that led them to involve themselves in purposes either unattainable or highly destructive. In the Indian context where the majority of people were non-Muslims and had been sufficiently stirred or got awakened, the end results were insignificant. From the point-of-view of higher Islam, this approach absolutely served no purpose. The cause of one-ness of God and Brotherhood of mankind was not advanced even a bit.

In spite of the lapse of centuries since the mission of Guru Nanak-Guru Gobind Singh was unfolded, the relevance of the mission had not abated. It is, perhaps, the only model that can suitably form the nucleus of global society which in these days is considered to be the need of the times. It is increasingly felt that the future of the world lies neither in nationalism, racialism, regionalism, religions, or communism, nor in internationalism which is more or less, a political arrangement at global level. The future lies in the globalisation which implies universal, ethical, political and religious values, pooling of material and non-material resources and their equitable distribution among the people. Various strategies are being worked out to achieve such a globalisation. Even U.N.O. is involved in such exercises. Special conclaves are being organised in different regions and it is being emphasised that all human beings in essence are part of Essence that is God, and they are not opposite to one another. Economists and political scientists are also busy moulding and shaping certain structures to work out global norms at political, social and economic levels. In such pursuits Guru Gobind Singh's mission, his ethics, his vision of society and economy can serve as a beacon. The fact had been realised, although dimly in certain quarters, and hopefully in the coming future, world would be attracted towards Guru Gobind Singh for guidance and inspiration.