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A Multidimensional Personality

When we picture to ourselves the whole gamut of the life and achievements of Guru Gobind Singh, he appears to us a gigantic personality with myriad layers; each layer being unique and beautiful in its own way. The all-round impression that emerges is that he was perfect in all respects and in whatever capacity he was called upon to play his part, his was the pursuit for excellence. He was extremely handsome with sharp features and with well-proportioned body. His face sparkled like full moon. The general effect of his personality was imposing, over-bearing and inspiring. His personal virtues were innumerable. He was cultured, decent, humane, sweet, responsive and tolerant. Straightforwardness, truthfulness and fearlessness were other hallmarks of his personality. He would never resort to underhand means, treachery and corruption for the achievement of his objects. Another important trait of the Guru's splendid personality was his equipoiseness. Nothing could ruffle him. He had to leave Anandpur, his hearth and home, he got separated from his companions and life-partners and his dear sons; he could, with great difficulty, save himself from the murderous fire of the Mughal artillery; his two younger sons were bricked alive at Sirhind, yet he remained composed and balanced.

To crown it all, he would not relent from his resolve. He even took the most strenuous situations as part of the game. He recompiled the final recension of Sri Adi Granth, after he had suffered a great loss at the hands of the combined forces of the Mughals and the Hill Chiefs. Obviously, he was Sthit Pragya or a perfect Karm yogi.

Besides this, the Guru was fearless and courageous. Zafarnama the letter written to Aurangzeb is a living testimony to the marrow-deep fearlessness and moral courage of the Guru. He wrote to Aurangzeb "I shall strike fire under the hoofs of your horses; I will not let you drink the water of the Punjab—what use it is to put out a few sparks when you raise mighty flame instead." Not only this, the Guru in this letter calls the Emperor a crafty and deceitful fox.[1] He warns him of the nemesis which lay in store for him.

As a child, he aroused affection of his parents and elders. As father and house-holder, he showered filial kindness on his children. The innocent smiles of his children moved him and he felt thrilled when his children did something which was laudable. He did not miss anything which was essential for their healthy and all-round growth. He cared for his household and made all possible arrangements for providing comforts to his family members. He always attended to his household duties. His family was an ideal one. He functioned his family unit not as a dictator but as a co-partner or as the first among the equals. The family of his concept was not patriarchal in the sense often understood, it was a unit suffused with the spirit of harmony, equality and democracy. He believed in monogamy and advised his disciples to follow his advice. Polyandrous and polygamous families were contrary to his concept of family.

Similarly as a general or as a leader he was unequalled. Such men are born rarely who starting from a scratch could prepare a formidable army in a short time, which could challenge the mighty power of the time. Dr. Indubhushan Bannerjee's expression at this point is worth-noting: "In the Bachittar Natak the Guru is rather modest with regard to his own performance and, as it is to be expected, attributes his successes to the Will of the Almighty. But from whatever little he says, it is not difficult to see what an accomplished archer he was and how unperturbed and dauntless he could be even in the midst of raining death." In forming an estimate of the military abilities of Guru Gobind Singh it must not be forgotten for a moment that there was a tremendous disparity in terms of resources between enemy and his forces. But the amazing thing is not that he lost but he could fight for so long. The defence that he extemporised at Chamkaur was excellent. With only forty devoted companions, he kept at bay for several hours a formidable strength of the enemy troops. This feat has hardly a parallel in the military history of the world. The sharp and discerning eye with which he chose the spot where the battle could be fought to his advantage leaves no doubt as to his tactical genius. The wisdom with which he raised forts at Anandpur and the quality of military training for which he made arrangement at the place bespeaks high of the standard of military leadership that he provided. The Guru was a great military planner as well. Every battle that he fought, he had framed a definite plan. This is amply clear from the way he had put up a stout defence with only forty Sikhs against surging mass of human heads. No odds however heavy they might be, dampened his valour and resolve. No personal danger made him shirk his duty. Wounds only stirred him to greater exertion.[2]

When he was called upon to assume the leadership of the ever increasing Sikhs, the circumstances were not congenial. The Government headed by Aurangzeb was not in a mood to tolerate any movement, much less the Sikh movement which was committed to usher in an era of liberalism in politics, social affairs and religious field. Aurangzeb was so much determined in his resolve that he did not feel hesitant even to execute those who were liberal or who had sympathy for liberal movement. Sarmad and a score of Muslim Sufis and Guru Tegh Bahadur had to suffer execution because of their liberal views in the sphere of religion and social system. The internal administrative organisation of the Sikhs known as Masand system had also gone rotten. The Masands being corrupt and extremely selfish, were most illfit to weave the community into a compact socio-politico-religious group. Because of certain factors which had been operating since long, the Hindu masses were completely demoralised. Hill Rajas were more interested in their feudal interests than in their people. The Sikhs had yet to come out of the shock they had suffered in the wake of the unjust execution of Guru Tegh Bahadur. Besides this, the age factor also did not favour the Guru. The Indian tradition long accustomed to holding the grey bearded as wise and mature had to be convinced that the ripeness had no perennial link with the age. Guru's resources, were also very scanty.

It is really amazing that the Guru, notwithstanding all these adverse factors succeeded in creating his following and then lead them in such a way that they became instrument of progress not only of the community to which they belonged but also of their country—even of whole mankind. In this process, he exhibited remarkable insight into the human nature, their psychological reactions and responses to different problems and challenges, and into the social mechanism then existing.

He exploited and harnessed all that was vital among the people. He employed theology, literature, poetry and philosophy to prepare the mind of the people to serve his purpose. Through training and education, he succeeded in transforming the psyche of the people. This was the reason that the stock who was considered to be the dreg of humanity was made to long for freedom and for doing brave deeds. As a matter of fact, the potentialities which lay dormant under the killing weight of the Mughal despotism and the outworn social system as imposed by Hinduism, were awakened and forged into a dynamic force to live and die for the sake of truth and righteousness.

Still, the Guru did not allow his following to develop narrow religious patriotism. He exhorted them to enlarge their vision to awaken to the ideals of establishing the rule of the virtue all over the world. In this context the Sikh movement was different from the Maratha movement which was more of revival of their past glory. Sri Aurobindo Ghosh says, "The Marathas revival inspired by Ramdas's conception of the Maharashtra Dharma and cast into shape by Shivaji in spite of the genius of the Peshwas could only establish a military and political confederacy. Their endeavour to found a nation could not succeed because it was inspired by a religious patriotism that failed to enlargen itself beyond its own limit and awaken to the idea of united India." "The Sikh Khalsa, on the other hand, was astonishingly original and a novel creation with its face turned not to the past but to the future." "His (Guru’s) aim as a leader was not to lead the people in the context of contemporary circumstances but also to make them conscious of their role, even in the times to come." He enjoined upon his followers that they were the soldiers of Akal Purakh ki Fauj (Army of the Almighty) and they should continue to strive to see that a society, where there is no exploitation and no discrimination on the basis of cast, creed, clime, wealth, birth and sex and there is freedom of expression, of adopting any profession and where everyone has a right to hold his head high and where mutual love for each other is established.

The Guru was faced with a very daunting task of giving a suitable reply to different challenges without resorting to atrocities and meanness. A suitable reply he gave without relegating the moral values. Some scholars have given the name of crusade to the struggle of the Guru and his followers against the tyrannous contemporary rule; but it is incorrect. It would be derogatory to give the name crusade to wars fought by the Gurus. It was a sublime attempt perhaps made for the first time in human history to fight forces of evil without losing the human values.

His contribution to the domain of thought was also of immense value. In fact, he was a creative thinker. He did not believe in the purely idealistic tradition of the country according to which it was held that the material world was unreal and the instruments of knowing it; that is to say, perception and experience are also unreal. And that what we see, perceive or experience is either illusion or ignorance. These views were constantly and deliberately hammered by Indian philosophers, notable among them being Nagarjuna and Shankar. According to them, we out of ignorance or illusion consider natural things as real. They illustrate their point by giving the example of a snake and a rope. They hold that sometime rope is perceived as a snake. Just as illusion or ignorance creates the impression of rope being snake, similarly the natural things which are as unreal as rope-snake are illusory. These thoughts when percolated down to the common man often made him doubtful even about their existence. Its social effect was to search reality somewhere else with the result that this philosophy, instead of bearing an imprint of progress, began to be used by the clever as a mean to distract the attention of the people from the material world.

This type of working did not fit in the practical world. In one's practical life, one has to run for water when thirsty. He has to eat food and wear clothes. It is of no use laughing at it all as banal talk. The problem posed was a serious one. The evidence of practical life could not be overlooked. The snake perceived in the rope might not harm philosopher's contemplation but not so if the snake is seen through the smoke.

The Guru was convinced that the tradition tightly gripping the minds of the people will not explain the things correctly, and to their conviction. The evidence of practical life could not be just over-looked, and in fact on the basis of this evidence, it was not difficult for the Guru to surmise that the grand theoretical structure so laboriously built up by idealists would not be in a position to hold in the context of the world.

He, therefore, did not accept it in toto. He accepted this much that the ultimate reality was something—may be named as God—who is formless, deathless, beyond space and time, self-existent, all Enlightenment; but he did not believe in the fact that all the things perceived, seen and experienced in this world are illusory. Illusion there is but that is because of the faulty experience or faulty perception, not that the world, the whole world is illusion. From this it should not be concluded that the Guru began to believe in the other extreme i.e. to say that materiality is everything as it has been experienced and propounded by the Charvak school of thought or by the Marxist school of thought. The Guru regarded material things a reality and wanted that men should endeavour to improve their material world. For that matter the struggle of the Guru revolved around the establishment of the rule of the virtuous and the elimination of the evil-doers. But for the Guru it was not everything. He wanted his followers to struggle and strive to be Reality-like. Even in the midst of the material battles he stole time to sit and mutter 'Thou art, Thou art' the only reality. He preached genuine love for 'Reality', but unlike idealists, the Guru exploded the myth that the love for it was not a force meant to be unsuccessful in this world. On the contrary, he said that it was meant to be successful only in this world, for, outside it, there was nothing except God. If a Jivatma manages to get free of this vortex of life and death, it gets merged straight in the Lord. Thus, love means nothing for that world where everything is merged in the Lord. Love was a force meant for this world i.e. to say the Dharam Khand. This was indeed a revolutionary idea for the practical world. By giving this idea, the Guru sought to win the earth back for the man. This is certainly one of the most important reasons that the Sikhs are not other-worldly. A Sikh looks upon the world as a genuine place to live, enjoy and to elevate himself. The social projection of this type of thinking on the part of the Guru was healthy and the Khalsa whom he created in his own image, became inspired group of men surcharged with the spirit of participating in the world to improve and ensure its progress.

Besides this, the Guru's idea of keeping up 'living separateness' also exacts praise. He asks his disciples to keep themselves in 'living separateness' (as long as the Khalsa keeps up its living separateness, it will enjoy all my prestige). By living separateness, he meant that his disciples having raised themselves to the ideals he had set for them, should be conscious of it and ever remain vigilant that they were not swallowed up by the environment whose improvement was yet to be effected. This was a unique contribution, because it has been observed that the cultural-pattern which gives up its living separateness and neglects its self-defence is bound to be swallowed up.

His ideas about religion were also striking and tinged with the revolutionary fervour. He repeatedly pointed out that his religion did not consist in turning increasingly towards veiled stones, nor in approaching altars or in throwing one self-prostrated on the ground, nor raising the hands before gods, or deluging the temples with the blood of the beasts, not in keeping vows, but in beholding the height of God within a peaceful soul, in dedicating one's mind, heart and soul to the service of humanity, which is the highest manifestation of the spirit of God.

Ascetics who eat dirty food are no better than filth eating swines.

Yogis who pride in besmearing themselves with ashes

Are no better than donkeys and elephants that bespatter themselves with dust.

Recluses who retire to the grave-yards

Are no better than jackals howling in the crematory

Monks who live in remote monastries

Are like owls living in deserted houses;

Anchorites waste life in vows of silence;

In what way are they better than the deer who lives and dies in silence in the forest.

What avails giving five calls in the name of religion The Jackal cries time and again in the bitter cold at night Without enlightenment and divine knowledge The fool sinks into the pit of hell How can one attain divine wisdom

Without faith, love and devotion. (Akal Ustat)

It is an admitted fact that continuity in progress can be assured if the people at the helm of affairs of the society are not allowed to form a privileged class. It has been observed that such people are thrown up to lead a society by the society itself. Then they become privileged and concentrate their energies to safeguard their privileges instead of identifying themselves with the interest of the people as a whole. Such people arrest the progress. The Guru correctly understood all this. In Bachittar Natak he exposes different saints and leaders coming up on the stage of the world and instead of leading it to a higher destination delimit their activities and form their respective coteries, caring little for the welfare of the human race as a whole. The Guru bemoans that the truth, (the Guru used the word Par Brahma) is abjured and falsehood is followed (Par Brahm Kineh Na Pechana). Humanity thus is not benefitted. The Guru constantly endeavoured to keep his action and teaching continuously linked with progress and turned his face against the privileged people. This he did before Rousseau wrote his Social Contract and 150 years before Marx formulated his Manifesto. The Guru said:

All the battles I have won against tyranny,

And I have fought with the devoted backing of these people. Through them only have I been able to bestow gifts.

Through their help I have escaped harm.

The love and generosity of these Sikhs have enriched my heart and love;

Through their grace I have attained all learning.

Through their help, in battles, I have slain many enemies.

I was born to serve them, through them I reached eminence.

What would I have been without their kind and ready help?

There are millions of insignificant creatures like me. (Swayyas)

Guru Gobind Singh was the first prophet in he world history to identify himself completely with the will and destiny of the people and to give them a place higher than the highest. By doing this, he made them creative. Lest they should become privileged class or vested interest themselves, he filled their minds with the spirit of cosmopolitanism. He uttered to them:

All men have the same human form

In all men blazes the same divine light.  (Akal Ustat)

When the Order of the Khalsa was ushered in on the Baisakhi day of 1699, many Brahmins and Khatri followers murmured unpleasantries but the so-called condemned race rejoiced. The murmurs of the twice-born increased and many took their departure but the Guru exclaimed that the lowly should be raised and that hereafter the despised would dwell next to him. The big ladder with which the Guru used to raise the people high was in the form of self-dignity of men. "Tremendous change was effected in the whole tone of national character. Even those people who had been considered as dregs of humanity were changed as if by magic, into something rich and strange."

"The last apostle of the Sikhs effectively roused the dormant energies of the vanquished people and filled them with a lofty, although fitful longing for social freedom and national ascendency, the proper adjuncts of that purity of worship which had been preached by Nanak."[3]

Mission of Guru Gobind Singh

In Bachittar Natak the Guru says:

I shall now tell my history,

How God brought me into the world as I was performing penance.

On the mountain of Hemkunt   

I performed such penances that I became blended with God     

When God gave me the order I assumed birth in this Kal Age I did not desire to come,

As my attention was fixed on God's feet

God remonstrated earnestly with me

And sent me into this world with the following order:

When I created this world

I first made the demons who became enemies and oppressors. They became intoxicated with the strength of their arms.

And ceased to worship Me, the Supreme Being....

I became angry and stone destroyed them.

In their place I established gods:

They also busied themselves with receiving sacrifices and worship,

And called themselves supreme being  

I have cherished thee as my son And created thee to extend my religion Go and spread my religion there,

And restrain the world from senselessness        

Understand this, ye holy men, in your souls I assumed birth for the purpose of spreading the faith, saving the saints.

And extirpating all tyrants.

From the reading of the above excerpt from Bachittar Natak, it emerges that Guru considers himself commissioned by God to spread God's religion, to save the saints and to extirpate the tyrants.

The Guru throughout his life lived to fulfil this mission. He never shirked upholding goodness even at the risk of his life. There is not a single example of dichotomy between his mission and his action. Even in the field when the enemies were unflinching in their determination to destroy his disciples, he would not waver in upholding the principle of goodness and nobleness. This aspect was clearly visible in his attitude, in his thinking and in his actions.

In fact this thing was the central theme of Guru's actions. Battles he fought but did not occupy even an inch of territory— his purpose being only to teach a lesson to the unjust enemy. He used his sword and allowed his followers to use it too, but only for the protection of the poor and the helpless. All his wars were of the nature of Dharam Yudh, the fight for Dharma— righteousness. He never allowed the moral content to disappear from his actions.

Bhai Kanahiya gave water to a soldier belonging to the enemy's camp. The Sikhs got infuriated at him and reported the matter to the Guru. To the surprise of all, the Guru patted him and said that he had recognised the Truth.

Irvine and other scholars, mostly belonging to the 18th century state that the Guru's precepts prohibited all friendship with Muhammdans. This is obviously wrong. The Guru perfectly understood that he was fighting against the Mughal Empire which was unjust and had lately become tyrannous. His fight was against tyranny and not against the Muslims as such.

Some Muslims such as Pir Buddhu Shah who sacrificed two of his four sons for the sake of the Guru were amongst his best friends. The Guru might not have been able to effect his escape from Machhiwara without the help of Ghani Khan and Nabi Khan. Gough is absolutely right when he remarks that the Empire rather than Islam was the object of his animosity.

Irvine and many other scholars have jumped to the wrong conclusion because in the circumstances of the eighteenth century, the fine distinction referred to above, was difficult to maintain and it ceased to be valid for all practical purposes. The Mughal Government had become rotten to the core and it was becoming futile to expect any justice from its officials any longer. One trouble led to another and the Sikhs soon found themselves in the midst of a never-ending discord with the Muslim rulers. This struggle inevitable coloured the views of the later writers and principles were attributed to the Guru, which find no support in his life and writing.[4]

Nor did he fight for the protection of the Hindus. Bulleh Shah says in one of his couplets that if Guru Gobind Singh had not taken birth, most of the Hindus (particularly those of Northern India) might have embraced Islam.

Similarly Bhai Santokh Singh asserts "Malechas (Muslims) would have flourished, and Hindus would have been ruined and the religion of the Vedas and Purans, would have been drowned."

True that Hinduism was saved; but it happened as a part of a bigger scheme of Guru Gobind Singh. Aurangzeb, with all his might, was determined to convert Dar-ul-Harb into Dar- ul-Islam (the land of the faithfuls). By arming his disciples and arousing them to resist the Mughals, the Guru set an example for anyone to understand that even the fear of Aurangzeb and the temptations held only by him had failed to attract them to his faith.

It is, therefore unfair to think that the Guru could have been the sworn enemy of a community or a class.

The Guru was cosmopolitan in outlook and believed in the evolution of composite culture consisting of the best that was there in different types of traditions in this country or countries. The Guru spells out his point-of-view in the following lines.

"The temple and the mosque are the same; the Hindu worship and the Musalman pray to the same; all men are the same; it is through error they appear different... Musalmans and Hindus adopt their customary dresses of their different countries. All men have the same eyes, the same ears, the same body, the same build, a compound of earth, air, fire and water."

"Allah and Abhakh are the same, the Purans and the Quran are the same; they are all alike; it is the one God who created all."

The only thing that may be mentioned against the above belief of the Guru is the vendetta that he pursued against Wazir Khan of Sirhind but that was a different matter altogether. To let Wazir Khan go unpunished would have been to compromise with the very basis of his creed which was (as already mentioned), that tyrants must be punished. Yet while believing, however, in his divine-ordained mission, he took care to see that his followers did not fall into the old Hindu weaknesses of deifying their leader. He emphatically asserted that he was human, and that to attribute divine honorific to him would be blasphemous:

Whoever says I am the Lord Shall fall into the pit of Hell Recognise me as God's servant only Have no doubt whatever about this I am a servant of the Supreme, A beholder of the wonders of this creation. (Bachittar Natak, VI Pauri 32)

The Guru was a builder par excellence. He identified and understood the exact nature of the challenges and fashioned suitable response to them. The society was in the throes of caste prejudices, feudalistic tendencies, economic inequities, injustice, particularism, obscurantism, despotic tendencies, Islamic imperialism and inter-religious-group tensions.

All these forces had sapped the vitality of the people. The Guru fashioned a fitting response to these challenges. He made efforts to inculcate democratic ideas, spirit of social and economic equality, sense of justice, besides building the national will to fight and resist evil in any shape. A few half­hearted attempts had already been made by Sufis and Bhaktas, but the real beginning had been made only by the Sikh Gurus. Guru Gobind Singh brought about their culmination. He did not stop at preaching and setting his own example but he set afloat an organisation to preserve, perpetuate and consummate his programme. The organisation he evolved was the Khalsa.

The creation of the Khalsa speaks volumes of the organising genius of the Guru. It was at once a social pattern, an instrument to further the cause of Sikhism, a culmination of what the previous Gurus had conceived and preached, a vision to be translated into reality in future. Nanak disengaged his little society of worshippers from Hindu idolatry and Mohammedan superstitions and made them free of their religion and moral influence. Guru Amar Das preserved the infant community from reducing itself into a sect of escapists or ascetics. Guru Arjan gave his followers written rules of conduct and civil organisation increasingly. Guru Hargobind added to it the use of arms and a military system; Guru Gobind Singh bestowed upon it a distinct political existence and inspired them with the desire of being socially free and mentally independent. But a mass of wax figures, bearing the same hallmark and dressed up in the same fashion could not form an effective machine. He, therefore, declared that the Sikhs were under the special protection of God, His own and wherever five of them were present, Divine presence was deemed to be there.

They were further impressed upon with the idea that they were born as blessed souls to conquer all evil-doers as the soldiers of the Almighty. The Guru was an embodiment of hope and confidence of His blessings, and his followers were saturated with the same belief. The new salutation among the Sikhs was to be Wahe Guru Ji Ka Khalsa, Wahe Guru Ji Ki Fateh (The Khalsa is His own and all their victories are His). A strong conviction of one's being the chosen instrument of God and the confidence it inspires, are the strongest guarantees of success. That the Guru had given these guarantees to his followers, was indeed a significant act of confidence building.

They were asked to eschew caste and tribe-prejudices and entertain the ideals of democratic equality thereby enabling them to achieve unity which is the first step towards evolution of nationalism and cosmopolitanism. He supplemented this moral force by some other ordinances which are as under:

  1. All the Sikh names were to bear a common suffix of 'Singh' among the males and 'Kaur' in case of females, as they do up to now.
  2. All had to adopt one form of salutation, Wahe Guru Ji ka Khalsa, Wahe Guru Ji Ki Fateh.
  3. There was to be no external object of homage except the revered Sri Guru Granth Sahib.
  4. The Guru fixed upon Amritsar as the chief theo-political place of the Sikhs; and that town had ever since been the Mecca of the followers of the Guru.
  5. "The Guru was a philosopher" says Cunningham, "and understood fully how the imagination of men could be wrought upon." He thoroughly realised hypnotising power of certain external forms and symbols and knew well what an inspiration, men often receive from a change in their outward appearances. He made it a rule that the Sikhs should keep five Kakars i.e. to say Kesh—Hair, Kangha—Comb, Kirpan—Sword, Kara—Steel bracelet and Kuchh—Nicker brocker.

According to Gocal Chand Narang, "These observances at once singled out the genuine Sikhs from the mass of the lukewarm Hindus and produced a cohesion in the internal body of the Khalsa which was in a short time to make a strong Panth of them."[5]

Guru Gobind Singh's attempt and desire to make the masses creative, articulate and wide-awake led him to uphold democratic values. In fact this tendency had been the root theme of Sikhism since its inception and also during the stewardship of Guru Gobind Singh. It was strengthened still more and instructions were issued not only to preserve it but also to make it part of social consciousness of the people. The Guru abolished Masand system which in course of time had outlived its utility. Masands had started impinging on the freedom of thinking and action of the people by acting in an authoritarian manner. By raising the status of the Khalsa to that of the Guru, by impressing upon the people that they all were the offspring of the Creator, by rejecting distinctions based on family, tribe, caste or class, birth or creed, and by regarding women as equal partners of men in the march of mankind towards progress, the Guru obviously clarified and demonstrated his stand for democracy and democratic values.

Thus the Guru preached the principle of equality of men and women, of abolition of special privileges, of removal of caste prejudices, of acting on Gurmata et al. These cannons upheld by Guru Gobind Singh are nothing practical aspects of the theory of democracy. It shows that Sikhism of the Gurus is democratic both in essence and orientation. But the Guru's concept of democracy was slightly different from the modern concept. While it is correct that Sikhism is democratic in essence and orientation, it must be clearly understood that the basis of modern political democracy is essentially numerical, while, the kind of democracy visualized by the Guru is qualitative, depending upon the decision of the people, noble and wise in spirit. Without this basis, the edifice of the Guru's vision cannot be raised.

Notes and References

[1] Zafarnama, 24, 45.

[2] Indubhushan Banerjee, Evolution of the Khalsa, Vol. II, p. 159.

[3] J.D. Cunningham, A History of the Sikhs, p. 75.

[4] M.A. Macauliffe, The Sikh Religion, pp. 296-301.

[5] Gokal Chand Narang, Transformation of Sikhism, p. 82.