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Life and Transformation

In the old Lakkhi jungle around Harike Pattan, Ferozepur and modem Muktsar there is a village Matte di Sarai now known as Sarai Nanga, 16 km away from Muktsar, situated on the highway leading from Dera Ismail Khan to Delhi via Harappa, Pakpatan, Fazilka, Patiala. Taimur is said to have entered India in 1398 A.D. through this way and reached up to Delhi devastating the whole area. This area of the Punjab was famous for its horses of fine breed and the warriors who were using them. May be the reason for attack on this area first by Taimur and then by Babar was that well-built and robust warrior community of the area was the major hurdle in the way of conquering India.

Bhai Pheru's maternal uncles lived in this Matte di Sarai and his paternal village was Mangoval, a considerably big village of district Gujarat (present day Pakistan). Many Trehan Khatris (kshatriyas) inhabited that village who were full of endurance, bodily strong and full of conviction. Though, they were holding the key business enterprises and were adept in revenue work yet they were full of elan vital oflife as were their counterparts Siddhu and Brar Jats around Mate di Sarai.

In Mangoval village of district Gujarat (Pakistan) lived Suraj Mall, the grandfather of Baba Pheru and father Baba Gehnu Mall. Gehnu Mall in connection with his business would go to many far off places and Matte di Sarai was also one of his destinations. Repeated visits to Matte di Sarai resulted in marriage of Gehnu Mall in the same village and four sons were born in his family. As avers Principal Satbir Singh, the name of the eldest son was Rajani, followed by Guraya Mall, Pheru Mall and Arathi Mall. The maternal uncles of Pheru Mall brought him to Matte di Sarai and got him educated there. When Baba Pheru got well read in Persian and accountancy, his marriage was also settled by the maternal uncles at their village Matte di Sarai. The name of his wife was Sabharai known as Ramo also. In the year 1504 on 31 March a son named Lahina was born to the couple. Baba Pheru was of a gentle and liberal nature and would serve the sadhus and saints well. However, the influence of Shakta cult of Shaivism was very much there in the villages because of the spread of yoga system and yogic practices.

Who are the Shaktas

Shiva is known as ardhnarishvar, that is, the right half of his body is Shiva (the male) and the left side is Shakti (the Devi Chandi). As says C.D. Sharma in the Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, the worship of shakti also dates back to Rigveda where she is praised as 'the supporter of the earth living in heaven.' Uma of golden hue of the Kena Upanishad is known among Shaivites as the 'Great Mother of the Universe'. The Shaivites made her the consort of Shiva and various Puranas describe her greatness. She is known as Shakti, Devi, Chandi, Chamunda, Durga, Uma and Mahamaya. In Agmic literature Shakti is known as the power of Existence, Knowledge and Bliss of Brahm and is inseparable from It. Shakti may be taken as male, female or neutral. In the Tantras, Shiva is pure indeterminate Brahm while Shakti, the power of Maya makes him determinate, endowed with the attributes of knowledge, will and act i on. Saundaryalahari of Shankarachacyasays: 'Shiva, when he is united with Shakti, is able to create; otherwise he is unable even to move'. Shiva without Shakti, is a shava-a corpse. Shakti is life of Shiva as she is his wife and Shaktas, the followers of shakti cult say that the whole world of matter and soul exists potentially in Shakti who is inseparable power of Shiva. Mantra and Tantra are sacred, secret and divine for Shaktas, the worshippers of Shakti. They glorify Nadayoga and awakening of kundalini and piercing of the six chakras (muladhar, svadhishthan, manipur etc.) is practised by them.

In order to understand the religious milieu around Guru Nanak and Guru Angad Dev it will not be out of place to mention the practices of goddess worshippers (the Shaktas) and particularly the kundalini arousal which was one of their main aims. The tantric literature while describing six chakras in the body explains that at the lower end of the spinal column is a self-supposed linga situated in triangular fixed-circle. The kundalini is supposed to be asleep facing down-ward coiling this linga with three and a half coils. Regarding this kundalini, it may be said that it has been mentioned by almost every one, who has undertaken to go deep into the study and practice of yoga. Most of the authors consider it as coiled three and a half times around the linga but in Goraksh Shatak it is described as coiled eight times around the ling like a serpent asleep with its head (mouth) closing its aperture completely. The sadhak awakes this kundalini with the help of the control over prana and apana and makes the trend of this kundalini upwards which, piercing the chakras above, reaches the sahasrara at the top and the sadhaka attains Shivaloka in gagan mandala. Above the triangular circle is a four petalled lotus called muladhara chakra. Above it, near the navel is the six petalled lotus named svadhisthan chakra. Above it is the manipura chakra and still higher, near the heart, is the anahat chakra, the ten and twelve petalled lotuses respectively. Near the throat is situated the vishudajna chakra and further above, in between the two eyebrows, is the ajna chakra, the two petalled lotus. According to the Yogic belief, piercing these six chakras the kundalini reaches the highest plane of the shunya chakra or sahasrara or the Shivaloka.

Kundalini is a feminine term and is held by the shaktas as a shakti supposed to reach sahasrara to meet Shiva. Owing to this analogy of Shiva and Shakti, it was not very unnatural to have drawn the idea of the union of men and women from which the active sex courses found their way inthe practices of vamachar among the devotees. It is also not impossible that in the beginning the retention of bindu even in such courses might have been possible for the maturer yogis but undoubtedly later on in the bhairavi chakras, the use of five makara (five Ms), mans, maithuna, madyapana, machhli, mudra, must have become a great source of attraction for the novices who for the sake of gratification of sex hunger must have been increasing the num ber of the followers of the cult. However, the Bhairavi Chakras were much more prevalent in Eastern India especially at Banaras and Kamakhya, the latter being a very famous shaktipitha-the centre for the worship of goddess. These shaktipithas were fifty one in number and they were scattered in all the nooks and corners of India. There is an anecdote in Devi Bhagvat Skandh seven, chapter thirty and the Kalika Puran about these shaktipithas. The consort of Shiva, Parvati felt enraged on her father Daksha who to take revenge of some old feud had organised one Yajna but had not invited Shiva. Humiliated as she felt, she came to her father and jumped into sacrificial fire of yajna, thus putting an end to her life. Infuriated by this, Shiva devastated the whole scene of yajna and decapitated Daksha. Shiva, full of agony put the body of the suttee on his shoulder and moved around in the world. Gods requested Lord Vishnu to relieve Shiva of the body. He with his Sudarshan chakara cut the body of the suttee piece by piece and in the process wherever the parts of the body fell, a shaktipitha later on emerged there. At Jvalamukhi, the mouth and tongue of the suttee are said to have fallen. The eyes fell at Naina Devi and thus fifty one places in North, East, South, West are known as Shaktipithas or Devi Pithas.

Bhai Pheru was not only a pious person but also a man of holy conduct, who served the needy open heartedly. However, he was an intense devotee of Devi Jvalamukhi and he would every year organise and lead a band of devotees to this shaktipith, where they would sing the praises of the goddess.

Once, due to heavy losses in the business Bhai Pheru got himself employed in the service of Chaudhari Takhat Mall who was chief of that area and according to Mahan Kosh of Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha, he was a treasurer of the administrator of Ferozepur. In the year 1519 Takhat Mall found some , discrepancy in the account books maintained by Bhai Pheru and became a bit apprehensive of his sincerity. The differences grew between him and his employer Takhat Mall and Bhai Pheru quit his service. Daughter of Takhat Mall always treated Bhai Pheru as her brother but even her efforts for the patch up between Takhat Mall and Bhai Pheru could not bring any fruit The accounts were set right as the mistake in calculations was detected but now Bhai Pheru thought it in the fitness of the things that he should re-start his own business. As is mentioned in the chronicles, during one of Babar's incursions into the plains of lndia, Matte di Sarai suffered a pillage at the hands of the invaders. Pheru Mal, along with his family left the village and, after a brief stay at Harike, shifted to Khadur, now known as Khadur Sahib. As mentioned above that Mai Sabhrai, the daughter of his former employer and a devotee of Guru Nanak, treating him as her brother helped Bhai Pheru to get settled there. Here Bhai Pheru died in the year 1526 A.D.

Born on March 31, 1504 at Sarai Nanga, earlier known as Matte di Sarai, Lahina, the only son of Bhai Pheru was married in January 1520 to Khivi, daughter of Devi Chand, a Marvaha Khatri from village of Sanghar near Khadur in Amritsar district. Two sons Das and Dat who later on became famous as Dasu and Datu because of their proud dispositions were born to the couple. Amaro and Anokhi were two daughters of Bhai Lahina. Within short span of time, Lahina's popularity increased by leaps and bounds. The Encyclopedia of Sikhism mentions, "The Janam Sakhis of the Puratan tradition describe Lahina as the pujari of Khadur. With only one exception, the inhabitants of Khadur were all worshippers of the goddess Durga and Lahina accordingly served as a pujari of the Devi cult." We have already discussed the nature of this Devi cult, philosophically known as Shaktism whose followers in fact, were known as Shaktas. Needless to say that like his father Lahina must have been a prominent figure among these Devi worshippers who in case of any problem must be seeking the instructions from Lahina.

M.A. Macauliffe, The Sikh Religion records that there lived in Khadur a Sikh called Jodh whose practice it was to rise every morning three hours before day and repeat Japu (ji) and Asa ki var. One pleasant night when gentle zephyrs cooled the heated air, Lahina heard a voice which awakened his emotions as it sang the following:

ਪਉੜੀ ॥

ਜਿਤੁ ਸੇਵਿਐ ਸੁਖੁ ਪਾਈਐ ਸੋ ਸਾਹਿਬੁ ਸਦਾ ਸਮ੍‍ਾਲੀਐ ॥

ਜਿਤੁ ਕੀਤਾ ਪਾਈਐ ਆਪਣਾ ਸਾ ਘਾਲ ਬੁਰੀ ਕਿਉ ਘਾਲੀਐ ॥

ਮੰਦਾ ਮੂਲਿ ਨ ਕੀਚਈ ਦੇ ਲੰਮੀ ਨਦਰਿ ਨਿਹਾਲੀਐ ॥

ਜਿਉ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਨਾਲਿ ਨ ਹਾਰੀਐ ਤੇਵੇਹਾ ਪਾਸਾ ਢਾਲੀਐ ॥

ਕਿਛੁ ਲਾਹੇ ਉਪਰਿ ਘਾਲੀਐ ॥੨੧॥ (੪੭੪)

Ever remember that Lord by worshipping whom thou shalt find happiness. Why hast thou done such deeds as thou shalt suffer for? Do absolutely nothing evil; look well before thee. So throw the dice that thou mayest not lose with the Lord. Nay, that thou mayest gain some profit. (Asa Ki Var)

As Lahina attentively listened to, his mind obtained peace. After day break he asked Jodh who had composed that stimulating hymn. Jodh duly informed him that it was his Guru, Baba Nanak then dwelling in Kartarpur on the bank of the Ravi. Devotion was kindled in Lahina's heart by all that he had heard from Jodh; and he longed to behold the Guru, it is said, as the chakar desires to see the moon.

As was the tradition of every year, Lahina organised and conducted pilgrimage to Jvalamukhi but as the strings of his heart were intimately touched by the hymn quoted above, this time he induced his companion devotees to break their journey at Kartarpur for a while. Lahina explained them that this time by visiting Guru Nanak they could perform two religious acts on the one pilgrimage.

Lahina's advice was accepted by one and all and thus Lahina was enabled to offer his obeisance to the Guru. After crossing River Ravi Lahina asking the devotees to stay back there itself, rode on the mare to have the glimpse of the Master, Guru Nanak. As says Mahima Prakash, on the way Lahina met an aged person and asked him the way leading to the house of Guru Nanak. 'O gentle man', replied the person, 'follow me, I will take you to your destination.'

Instead of going to the house he took Lahina to dharamsal, the prototype of the Gurdvara and said, "please tie the reins of the horse to this post and come in". Inside, the kirtan (hymn singing) was going on. Bent in humility Lahina bowed his head on the feet of Guru Nanak. Guru Nanak placed his hand upon the head of Lahina. Lahina felt delighted but when he lifted his head, he found the same man before him who catching hold of the reins of his mare had led him to this place. Lahina felt greatly embarrassed. Saving the situation, Guru Nanak asked the onlooker his name. The terse reply was "Lahina." O fine, the 'lender' always comes on the horse back to realize his capital from the 'debtor'. O Lahina, you are to take and I have to give it. Kalasahar, the Bhatt delineates this situation in his first savaiya in the Guru Granth Sahib (1391) : "blessed one is the true Guru Nanak who placed his hand on your forehead. As the hand was placed on the forehead the nectar rained in torrents and the angels, the human beings and the hermits got drenched in it.........By coming to the door of Guru (Nanak), you have conquered the world and (leaving away the goddess worship) have attuned yourself to the formless Lord. You became the Master of your inner self, controlled and have further put in confinement the five evil propensities."

The influence of this first formal encounter of Lahina with Guru Nanak was such that Guru's discourse made Lahina throw away the bells with which he had provided himself to dance before the goddess at Jvalamukhi. He congratulated himself on his good fortune in meeting the Guru, and said (to his companions) he no longer felt an inclination to worship in a temple of goddess.

His associates of journey who were already desperate over the fact that Lahina had gone to see Guru Nanak for a short while but he spent pretty long time and kept others waiting for resumption of the journey. However, listening to Lahina and seing his changed demeanour, the companions of the journey pressed him to continue his journey but Lahina did not relent. To quote Macauliffe Sikh Religion, "They said that, though he was the leader of their party, yet he forsook them on the road and in a strange country. They further reminded that it was written in the holy books of their faith that who threw any obstacle in the way of those who were doing penance, giving alms, fasting, going on pilgrimage, or getting married; who through laziness or fear of growing weary failed to worship Durga, the giver of wealth and holiness; or who having made a vow relinquished all efforts to accomplish it, was a great sinner, and his wealth and sons should all perish. Lahina coolly replied that he was prepared to suffer every calamity that might occur to him, but he would not forsake his true Guru. He had obtained such peace of mind while listening to his discourses, that he said he had alredy derived all the advantages he could have hoped from the worship of the goddess. He then decided to discontinue his pilgrimage and abide with the Guru." As holds Dr. Taran Singh, Bhai Lahina met Guru Nanak in the year 1532 and he could not pursue his onward journey to Jvalamukhi- the Shaktipith of the devotees of goddess Durga.

Here starts the second phase of the life of Lahina. Many acid tests were ahead through which as says Ramkali Ki Var, Lahina was required to be knocked and shaken for proving his worth like an accomplished pot. Nanak had raised the citadel of truth on the foundation of self-sacrifice to promote the dominion of Godhood (GGS, 966). This fortress was to be protected and further concretized by a person who matched its requirements. The routine and environment of Kartarpur was full oflove and simplicity, conducive for spiritual upliftment. Bhai Gurdas (Var 1.38) gives bird's eye view of the pervading socio-religious atmosphere of Kartarpur and avers : having returned to Kartarpur Baba (Nanak) put aside his attire of a recluse. Now putting on a house holder's dress, he sat splendidly on a cot (and executed his mission). When Baba uttered hymns, the light would spread and darkness dispel. At Kartarpur, the discussions for the sake of knowledge and the melodies of unstruck sound were ever heard there. Sadar and Arati were sung and in the ambrosial hours Japu (ji) was recited. The Gurmukh (Nanak) saved the people from the clutches of tantra mantra of Atharvaveda whose further offshoot was the cult of goddess which we have discussed earlier.

Bhai Lahina got fully absorbed in the devotion for the Guru and involved himself with firm determination in the agricultural activities, langar (free kitchen), waving of fan over the congregation, and carrying of water etc. Getting present in the congregation Lahina would listen to the discourses on the holy hymns. He being full of enthusiasm, would meet the seekers of holy knowledge and would especially heed the dialogue of the Guru with the ascetics coming from far and wide. Seeing such an overwhelming and ever increasing devotion of Bhai Lahina, Guru Nanak one day asked Lahina to return to his home, first for settling the affairs there and then for joining again here. By this time, Lahina had learnt the lesson of obedience to Guru and as desired by the Guru, he left Kartarpur and returned to Khadur. Winding up process he started and arranged the betrothal of Bibi Amro in the family of (Guru) Amar Das . Bhai Manak Chand, the younger brother of (Guru) Amar Das was her father-in-law and her husband's name was Jassu ji. In fact later on from Bibi Amaro, (Guru) Amar Das heard the Bani of Guru Nanak and Guru Angad and he became such a determined devotee of the House of Nanak, that in spite of being an old man of sixty one years, he did not hesitate in serving Guru Angad who by then (AD 1540) had come back to Khadur after assumption of the Guruship. However, when Bhai Lahina returned to Khadur and settled almost all affairs befittingly, he started yearning for the glimpse (darshan) of Guru Nanak. Lahina had already told his wife what had happened there at Kartarpur and how a spiritual change had been brought in him by meeting Guru Nanak. He now could not resist the idea of placing himself for the future at the Guru's feet. The description of the second meeting of Bhai Lahina is as lively and wondrous as was of the first one.

As mentions Bhai Santokh Singh, Sri Gur Nanak Prakash (Utrardh, chapter 47), Lahina having a bag of salt on his head for the Langar (free kitchen) of the Guru set out for Kartarpur. When Lahina arrived at Guru's house, he was well received by Mata Sulakhani, the wife of Guru Nanak. Lahina was told that Guru Nanak was not at home and was out in the fields for looking after the paddy crops. However, if Lahina wished him to see at once, he might go there. For Lahina, it was difficult to stay at home. He therefore making over the bag of salt to Mata Sulakhani reached straightway to the Guru. The Guru was taking the weeds out from the fields and he had collected three bundles of grass for his buffaloes and cows. The Guru desired to have the bundles of grass taken home; but as the grass was wet and muddy, his ordinary Sikhs started slinking away. He then asked his both the sons, Sri Chand and Lakhmi Das to carry the bundles. They too looked evasive by saying that we will send a labourer who would take them home. Just arrived Lahina making his obeisance said, 'Please consider me as a labourer and give me this task to do'. 'The Guru repeated his wish to have the bundles taken to his house. Lahina asked for assistance to lift the bundles on his head, and would then carry them. The Guru said he might take as many as his strength permitted but Lahina gathering strength from his enthusiasm, took the three bundles, and walked with them in company with Guru Nanak to his house. On the way the dripping of the moist mud from the grass soiled has costly silken clothes. The grass was unloaded at the place where animals were kept. Seeing this whole spectacle, mata Sulakhani felt shocked and wonderstruck as she could not understand the treatment being meted to a guest who had come to have darshan of the Guru. Sulakhani could not withhold and asked if it was proper for him to impose such menial labour on the guest and soil his new clothes. 'O Guru, you are shaking the faith of your devotees through your such behaviour bereft of consideration.'

Listening to this, Guru the repository of virtues replied that 'O Sulakhani, do not take it otherwise; these are not bundles but the canopy of God over a fit person. The dripping slime you have beholden is nothing short of saffron if you go near him and see it minutely'. Says Bhai Santokh Singh that the Guru asked Mata Sulakhani, "Have you seen Sulakhani". Mata Sulakhani replied, "O Lord, I have seen. Your working and the deep meaning of your words only you can understand". 'In this horrible world­ ocean', said the Guru, 'people are just drowning and perishing themselves. He will be their navigator to take them across safely.'

Lahina very well understood that the Guru appellation entails a hard life of working with one's own hands (kirat karani). As is generally understood by masses, this status is not any device which seeks physical pleasure; it rather inspires one to use one's body for the welfare of others. It is the bundle of responsibilities which Guru Nanak has willingly lifted on his discreet head. People under the yoke of political, social and religious leaders are leading such a miserable life that they have forgotten to realise their inner worth. They have forsaken their language, their culture and have adopted the ways of the rulers whose officials are always ready to lick the blood of the hapless downtrodden. In the house of Guru Nanak, it is very well understood by the devotees that no work is low or high; one has to earn his status in the society through the hard labour of one's own hands. If the position of the poor is to be ameliorated then one has to embrace them by being one of them not only in words but in deeds as well. One has to come out of the muddy affairs of life to be of the world but of course without becoming worldly. Totally unaware of his soiled clothes, Lahina was happy to feel that while in service of the Master, the hands, body and clothes look fine if they remain smeared in the dust of obedience. The servant cannot afford the salute as well as the disobedience; only bowing of head before the wish of the Lord is expected of a true servant.

Once a group of old companions of Bhai Lahina's happened to stop over at Kartarpur during their return journey and asked Lahina to usher them into the holy presence of Guru Nanak. Whatever was sought by the group members, they got from the house of Baba Nanak. For one night this group of goddess worshippers stayed with Bhai Lahina and Guru Nanak, and happily left Kartarpur in the morning. Lahina remained at Kartarpur keeping himself busy doing any service as and when required in the dharamsal of the Guru. Apart from rendering his services to the holy congregation (sangat ) he would always keep his attention fixed on the Guru. Thus imbued with the devotion for the Guru, he had fully surrendered himself before the Will of the Lord. Says Mahakavi Santokh Singh that even the devotion of the moth for fire and of deer for musical sound (nada) was insignificant when compared with the devotion of Lahina for the Guru and his sangat.

This way, when three years of concentrated and selfless service by Bhai Lahina passed, Guru Nanak asked Lahina to go to his native place (Khadur) for taking care of his own family. After listening to the immutable command of the Guru, Bhai Lahina, cherishing in his heart the loving and absorbing duties of the House of Guru, set out for Khadur and met his family members. People living around Khadur came to see Lahina as he had come to the village after a long time. Lahina paid due respect to his acquaintances and embraced his earlier companions. Takhat Mall Chaudhary, for whom, Lahina's father Bhai Pheru had worked and had subsequently left his service, also came to see Lahina. Chaudhary in a most humble way paid his obeisance to which Lahina said, 'O Chaudhari ji, you are the oldest person in the village and all follow your instructions here. It does not augur well that you should feel humble before me and sit in a comer. Being high in position and still being full of humility is the virtue of really great persons. In fact, the tree which is full of fruit bends down towards earth. Such persons are always great and I deserve your embrace and not the obeisance'. Takhat Mall stood up with folded hands and said, "you being man of pious conduct, cultured manners are very near to your heart. Besides this, remaining in proximity of that great person (Guru Nanak), having served him greatly you have become great yourself. Reverence for you is in the fitness of the things and hence I do not find it right to embrace you". Thus Bhai Lahina becoming full of delight avered : 'you have attained a ripe age and with the blessings of the Guru (Nanak) you will eschew all the sufferings. Your house will remain full of all pleasures and as a blessed person you will go from this world.' Says Bhai Santokh Singh that 'henceforth his house never saw any deficiency. A true devotion awakened in his heart and he became attuned to the nam of the great Enlightener. The true love emerged in his heart and now he would always eulogize the nam of the Lord. Lahina also once before him repeated the hymn of Guru Nanak which was recited by the Guru in Raga Suhi :

The Lord exalts those who have love in their heart. All delights He will spread around causing them to forget their sorrows. There remains no doubt about the fact that He will inevitably save them. As is recorded in their destiny, the Guru comes, meets them and imparts them the God's ambrosial Name. They conduct their life as per the teachings of the Guru and do not wander here and there as mendicants. Those who attain the presence of the Lord, never wish to bow before anyone else and such persons are not asked to present any sort of account at the divine portal. Whoever has attained the divine glance of grace, through his word many others get liberated. We have been sent by Him who never consults anybody for His actions; He Himself knows how to create and how to demolish the worldly affairs. 0Nanak, only through his glance of grace is granted devotion to the nam" (GGS, 729)

After few days, Lahina again became restive and perturbed. He would feel that his heart is there at Guru's feet though his body is at Khadur. In such a restless state of mind he remained for few more days there. However, he could not resist more and contrary to the wishes of the people who wanted him to stay there for few more days, he again set out for Kartarpur to be in the sangat of Guru Nanak. When Baba Nanak asked the reason for this short stay at Khadur, Bhai Lahina replied most humbly O Master, you know all that there is nothing in my control. As the kite tied to the thread is in the hand of kite flier and whenever he likes he can roll the thread and bring the kite down in his hand; similar is my case. Myself is the kite and you are the player who plays according to his own wishes. Saying this, Lahina again absorbed himself in the service of the Guru and sangat (holy congregation).

Henceforth, the harder tests were there before Bhai Lahina for whom in Satta Balvand Ramkali ki Var it is held that before offering him the Guruship, Guru Nanak well-judged him by thoroughly knocking and shaking of his pot of the body and the mind. Lahina due to his hard work and obedience to the Guru, was gradually earning preference over other Sikhs and especially over the sons of the Guru himself. Factually, in proportion, the disciple Bhai Lahina and Guru Nanak got pleased with each other, undoubtedly the former got the divine knowledge embedded in his heart but on the other hand, the jealousy in the heart of Sri Chand and Lakhmi Das also increased to which they often gave exposure without any fear and never took any pains to conceal their dislike for Bhai Lahina. That is why the Guru would often send him to Khadur for a while. In Khadur area Lahina became very popular in the new role of the Sikh of Guru Nanak and during one stay of Bhai Lahina at Khadur, Guru Nanak also visited him there. Lahina and his wife (Khivi) expressed deep devotion for the Guru and the Master taught his disciple the value and nature of careful observation of distinctions for having finaljudgement about a thing or a person. He further taught him the essence of spirituality and avered that spirituality was of no use which was devoid of the virtue that raised the self-respect. One must be spiritual, ethical and social but these all values should strengthen the self-respect and of course not the pride and ego of a man. Guru Nanak further elevated Lahina spiritually and returned to Kartarpur. Lahina also followed him soon.

As we know that Guru Nanak himself was attending to agricultural activities and would produce plenty of food grains used for the Langar (free Kitchen) wherein all irrespective of caste colour or creed were fed. Once there was unusual gathering of sangat and it rained continuously for three days. Guru Nanak had perhaps already planned some tests principally with the object of humbling the pride of his sons, and convincing them and his disciples that Lahina alone was worthy to succeed him. Due to unusual rains nothing could be cooked for the sangat and Baba Nanak looked a bit anxious. As says Bhai Santokh Singh, Baba called Sri Chand and Lakhmi Das and explained to them his inner anxiety. The sons replied, 'How can we feed such a big gathering in this heavy rain? From where we can bring food which may be sufficient for the people here. 'Commonly known as jangal jalebi the pithecelobium trees (of Dulce species) and kikar (acacia) were there around the dharamsal. The Guru asked both his sons one after the other to climb the trees and shake them profusely. However, both refused and retorted as to how sweets and cooked food could fall from the thorny trees. The Guru then asked Lahina to do what his sons had refused to undertake. Lahina climbed the tree and shook it. Heaps of edible fruit fell down which gave the taste of sweet victuals to the three days hungry devotees. They felt delighted to eat them.

Giani Gian Singh (1822-1921) Twarikh Guru Khalsa (part one) mentions ten episodes where through the devotion and total surrender of Bhai Lahina and others were tested. The most popular among them are five which have been dealt with in detail by Bhai Santokh Singh (1787- 1843) Sri Gur Pratap Suraj Granth. On one occasion when the evening routine of the dharamsal was over and after meals Guru Nanak retired to sleep, he suddenly called his sons and asked them to take his soiled clothes for washing them at once. Guru Nanak advised the sons to dry the clothes and to bring them soon. The sons replied that firstly, they were taking rest and secondly, this work did not suit their soft hands. Servants would wash them all in the morning and in fact that menial work was not possible from them. Without saying and looking at them the Guru asked Lahina to go and wash the clothes. Lahina immediately went and performed the task assigned to him and delighted as he became the Guru blessed him profusely.

On another occasion, the metallic cup slipped from the hands of the Guru into a deep muddy sink. Mata Sulakhani, his two sons and other Sikhs were there. The Guru asked Sri Chand and Lakhmi Das to take out the utensil to which they replied : Our clothes are costly and for this petty cup we cannot jump into this dirty pit. O father, since you are wise enough why do you assign this dirty task to us and degrade our position in the society. As the Guru beheld Lahina purposely and said him to bring out that cup and cleanse it, he without wasting any time accomplished the task and taking it out washed and cleansed it of the slush and handed over to the Guru. Clothes of Lahina became full of slime but the people around and the Guru felt delighted. Almost on every occasion Bhai Lahina won the heart of the Guru by his humility, hard work and deep sense of obedience. Lahina was behaving like that fruit-laden tree which feels delighted to suffer for others. Marking his devotion, the grace of the Guru for him was increasing day by day. The Guru identifying in him that divine person who has the capacity of bearing the unbearable, became much more happy over him. This attitude of the Guru could not remain concealed and everybody became aware of it. People started drawing inferences that the Guruship is likely to be transferred to Bhai Lahina and it seems unlikely that Sri Chand and Lakhmi Das will get anything. People deliberated among themselves that as and when any test has been put forth, Lahina placed himself as the right person. Now it is in the fitness of things that Lahina is given the highest honour.

Mata Sulakhani hearing such rumours became full of anguish and anxiety. She immediately proceeded towards dharamsal where Guru Nanak Dev was present. Two sons sat by the side and many more Sikhs were present when Mata Sulakhani with a dejected face entered there. Sitting near the Guru, she said, "O virtuous and holy person, why have you thought of going against the current trend; one is required to behave as is the way of the world. Your sons are all competent but still you do not love them. Our family tree is to grow further through them only. Repudiating the talented sons, you are showering your love upon a disciple. Even the earlier incarnations of God have never thought of placing the followers above their progeny. Let me tell you that if you think this way, it will not be a proper proposition. Your sons will have to suffer forever due to your policies." The Guru observed silence and kept himself quiet for some time. Meanwhile, made to run by the Sikhs, a cat entered the dharamsal having a rat in its mouth. It dropped the half eaten victim there and went away in another direction. To answer the anxiety of Mata Sulakhani, Guru Nanak seeing towards Sri Chand, the elder son, asked him to take away the dead rat to throw it out, and then come back. Sri Chand replied, that he knew and had seen many such skilful feats of his father through which he had put them to many so-called tests. 'I being fed up of all this, will not lift this dead creature'. Then the Guru turned towards second son Lakhmi Das who also said, "O father, this is not matching to our status that we should ever touch the dead rat. If you wish I can call someone else to do this job". Thus, being proud of his converse he became quiet. The Guru then beholding Lahina asked him to throw away the dead rat. Listening to the half sentence of the Guru, Lahina took away the rat and went outside to dump it at a distant place. Meanwhile, the Guru asking Mata Sulakhani to delve deeper into her heart said, 'These are my sons and he (Lahina) is known as the son of somebody else. My sons have never accepted my advice whereas he (Lahina) acts even before my command. Nothing is in the hands of anybody; everything is controlled by creator Lord. On whom He castes His graceful glance only he obtains this commodity (of love and obedience). Only the low land attracts water and the mound cannot withhold even a single drop of water'. Listening to attentively and seeing with her own eyes, Mata Sulakhani got up to move towards her residence.

Parchian Seva Das is a work of the first half of eighteenth century which records fifty sakhis of all the ten Gurus. Apart from other episodes of Lahina's life, the writer, Seva Das mentions the anecdote of eating of the dead body by Lahina which in fact clinched the issue of Guruship in favour of Bhai Lahina. Bhai Santokh Singh deals with this episode in detail. One day, Baba Nanak hanging a dagger from his waist made the guise of a hunter. He took with him many a pig followed by hounds. When the Sikhs saw him at the outskirts of the town, they felt amazed to find him in such an attire. The devotion of many of them melted away when they saw the Guru in totally unexpected guise. Discussing among themselves many of them felt that the Guru has gone crazy. His horrible countenance cannot be faced. Now it is difficult to remain here because he is speaking unmindful of the people around. Only Lahina did not part company and stood before the Guru with folded hands. In fact he had already offered his body, mind and his all possessions to the Guru and now how could he back track the position. The Guru singing aloud was moving from one to another place continuously. After some time, Lahina went near Guru and with folded hands told the Guru that 'seeing your this impersonation of a hunter, becoming impatient the other Sikhs have fled the place. Only I am here who would go nowhere. Having sold my body and mind I have purchased love for you; l am your slave whether you kill me or shunt me away. I will be fortunate if my body perishes at your hands. However, O Guru, tell me the reason of this disguise'. 'No reason,' told the Guru, 'I simply do not want anybody near me. Why don't you leave me alone. Obey my advice and go away from here.' Says Mahakavi Santokh Singh that Lahina had to go lest it tantamount to disobedience of the Guru's words. Lahina, returned and met the people left behind. Breathing hard, he told what had transpired between him and the Guru. Lahina made people understand that this test by the Guru is difficult to understand. As the time passed, Guru Nanak also reached the sight where all were awfully discussing the matter. Frightened as they became, they were unable even to speak and bow before him. A copper chain was hanging from the Guru's waist and now one baton was in his hand. When any Sikh bowed and touched his feet, he received a blow of the baton at his back. All were wonderstruck at this behaviour of the Guru. The Guru asked, ''who are you all and why you don't get dispersed to your places". 'What you people are doing here'. As the people said that they were his disciples (Sikhs), the Guru gave blow to one and all at the name of 'Sikh'. Many ran away but still some remained there.

The Guru asked them since how long you have been my Sikhs, tell me immediately. The Sikhs replied: O Guru, we are Sikhs since the time you allowed us to be your Sikhs. 'Alright, if you are my Sikhs then obey me and follow me. Thus the Guru led the Sikhs to a remote place in the interior of the forest and showed them all a pyre containing a covered dead body. Some wooden logs were also stacked nearby. Now the Sikhs further got perplexed to behold this spectacle. When all the Sikhs reached, the Guru spoke aloud: 'If you call yourself my Sikhs then do as I say or leave this place at once. Eat this dead body lying on the pyre and if you do not eat it, you will repent a lot.' Listening to this, all became wonderstruck and dumbfounded and they lost their patience. Many took to their heels to reach their homes and many hid themselves behind the bushes. Ultimately Lahina stayed and all others disappeared.

Seeing him alone there the Guru spoke to him as to why he had not gone; 'If you claim to be my Sikh then without delay eat this dead body.' Hearing this, Lahina took a round of the body and asked, 'O Guru, tell me which side I should begin with.' The Guru indicated towards feet. As Lahina lifted the white sheet to begin with, he was awefully amazed to find sweet pudding (prasadz) spread in the shape of body. Lahina fell on the feet of Guru Nanak and the Guru being overwhelmed took him into his embrace. 'O Lahina', said Guru, 'you are henceforth my image and you have become one with me.' Lahina and Guru Nanak came to dharamsala. All the Sikhs and the sons of the Guru were called there. Seating Lahina at the proper place, the Guru glanced him lovingly and nominated Bhai Lahina as his successor. With folded hands the Guru bowed before the disciple to which Balvand in Ramkali Di Var says that Guru Nanak "diverted the flow of Ganges in a different direction." Before Guru Nanak, it had nowhere happened in the history of religious world that the Guru in his life time elevated the disciple to the status of Guru and bowed before him. Guru Nanak further declared that Lahina has born from my limb (ang) therefore henceforth he will be known as Angad. Guruship, Guru Nanak handed over to Angad and further said, "whosoever claims himself to be my Sikh should come forward and pay obeisance before Guru Angad considering him my image. All including Bhai Budda emerged from their seats and bowed before Guru Angad except Sri Chand and Lakhmi Das, the sons of the Guru Nanak Dev. The Guru asked them to come forward and make obeisance like others. The sons replied, "He is your disciple whereas being your sons we have higher position and status than him. How it behooves that we should bow before him; this is not worth doing." Saying thus, both of them having no regard for the advice given to them left the place. The Guru kept quiet at the moment. It will be not improper if one comes to know here that what tradition and legacy Guru Nanak was creating in that remote area of Kartarpur. Bhai Gurdas (Var, 26, 31) portrays distinction between the worldly kings and the true spiritual king who bestows his throne to the most competent person only. Bhai Gurdas says: The temporal king dies after handing over the kingdom to his son. He establishes his sway over the world and all his soldiers obey him. In the mosque he (son) orders prayers to be said in his name and qazis and the mullahs (spiritual persons in the religious orders of Islam) testify for him. From the mint comes out the coin in his name and every right and wrong is committed at his order. He controls the property and wealth of the country and sits on throne caring for none. (However) The tradition of the House of the Guru is that the high way shown by earlier Gurus is followed. In this tradition only the one primal Lord is applauded; the mint (holy congregation) is one here; the sermon (of Nam) is one and the true throne (the spiritual seat) is also one here. Justice of the Lord is such that this fruit of pleasure is given to the gurmukhs by the supreme Lord.

Dr Hari Ram Gupta holds in his 'History of the Sikh Gurus' that Guru Nanak gave Lahina the name Angad because Angad of the epic Ramayana was the most faithful person around Rama and similarly Lahina was also the most obedient and faithful to Guru Nanak. To quote him, ''Nanak gave Lahina this name perhaps from the fact that Angad was a trusted follower of Rama, the hero of Ramayana, and who had been sent by Rama as his special ambassador to Ravana."

The statement of Dr Gupta may be considered partially true but the analogy is not altogether correct. Angad of the Ramayana, is son of Bali and his wife Tara and right from his birth his name is Angad. However, here Angad is Lahina prior to becoming Angad and he, due to hard labour, sense of surrender and obedience has born from the limbs (Ang) of Nanak; he rather is the second Nanak. His status is now as high as that of the Nanak's himself who while alive elevated the disciple to the position of the Guru and through whom Nanak became an institution and whose name was used by all the Gurus whose Bani has been recorded in the Guru Granth Sahib. This in no way was the case and relationship between Angad and Rama of the Ramayana.

Puratan Janam Sakhi, Meharban Janam Sakhi and Professor Sahib Singh hold that while offering Guruship to Guru Angad, Guru Nanak handed over to him the pothi as well. In Puratan Janam Sakhi anecdote 56 and 57, it is clearly mentioned that after the recitation of Barahmaha Tukhari as per the word of the Guru, the pot hi was given to Lahina, the competent one. Bhai Gurdas also tells that Baba Nanak always had a pothi (book or bundle of papers) with him and that is why the Muslim priests at Mecca asked him to open his book and tell them as to who was great between a Muslim and a Hindu. Baba Nanak told the pilgrims there that without virtuous deeds both will have to wail and cry. That pothi, the repository of Bani was further handed over to Guru Amar Das and likewise subsequently, this treasure of bani came to Guru Arjan Dev who assiduously with the help of Bhai Gurdas, the philosopher, and some other learned Sikh scholars edited, compiled and finally placed it at Harmandir Sahib Amritsar in the year 1604 A.D.

As mentions the Encyclopedia of Sikhism, after the nomination of Guru Angad as his successor on 13 June, 1539, the 'installation (of Guru Angad Dev) on gurgaddi took place a few days before the death of Guru Nanak on 7 September 1539.' Guru Nanak told Guru Angad about his approaching end and asked him to go to Khadur to spread the message of Sikh way of life which he himself had cultivated and assimilated in his body, mind and soul. Mahakavi Santokh Singh avers that while about to move to Khadur as desired by Guru Nanak, Guru Angad asked him the last question as to 'what is your command to me about my attending you in the last hours of your earthly life.' The Guru replied, 'if you could not reach due to any valid reason, I shall for nothing go on cherishing the hopes. Better, you do not come and I will be visiting you in my own way and be always meeting you.' Guru Angad Dev read between the lines uttered by Guru Nanak and abiding the will of Baba Nanak moved towards Khadur.

However, the separation from the Guru made him gloomy and he locked himself in room to delve deeper into his self. Only Mai Bhirai knew where he was. After the heavenly ascension of Guru Nanak Dev, Bhai Budda and other Sikhs came to Khadur in search of Guru Angad Dev. They reached Mai Bhirai who after much hesitation told them about Guru Angad who was engaged in deep trance. Somehow, the Guru came out of the room and met all the people who came from Kartarpur. As the sangat was perturbed and restive due to the absence of the Guru, Guru Angad serving them food etc. advised them to be patient and repeat 'satinam '. Now the people started gathering at Khadur where the grand effulgence of the light of the Guru was creating a movement on the lines and guidance given by Guru Nanak.

Bhai Santokh Singh gives the detailed daily routine of the third phase of the life of Guru Angad Dev in his Sri Gurpratap Suraj Granth (Ras 1 Ansu 10). During last watch of the night he would leave his bed and after finishing bath he would meditate until daybreak. Afterwards he attended to sick persons coming from different places and healed them. Because of such act of benevolence by the Guru, his name and fame spread all around. Rising from the meditation whomsoever he happened to behold, his mind and body gained strength and health. Then he attended to the Kirtan while sitting in the holy congregation of the Sikhs and later preached and expounded nothing except the teaching and hymns of Guru Nanak. When the call for langar was announced, the Guru, along with sangat would proceed for that. All the four varnas sat together and among them there was no distinction of king or the pauper. The pots were made of clay and on leaves (pattals) people would put up their meals. The Guru's wife Mata Khivi took care of the Langar and in Ramkali Ki Var Balvand says that in her Langar ghee-mixed Khir (milk and rice pudding) was prepared and distributed to one and all. As holds Bansavalinama (Chapter II) , 'Guru and his family ate simple meal which he earned by twisting murif , reed fibre into string'. The family earned their meals by putting in the labour of their hands.

In the afternoon, the Guru would play with children and then teach them Gurmukhi letters. While playing with the children he absolutely mixed with them caring for nobody else. On one such occasion, hounded by the army of Shershah Suri, Humayun while fleeing Agra was running towards Punjab, and came to know that the gaddi of Baba Nanak was now being adorned by Guru Angad and he is there at Khadur. According to Sikh tradition, and accounts in the Sri Gur Pratap Suraj Granth and Mahima Prakash (Sakhi Panj ), Humayun came to Khadur to seek Guru Angad's blessings. The Guru at that time was busy with children teaching and playing with them. He did not take any special notice of the king. Humayun stood unattended for few minutes and could not control his anger for such treatment. As he was laying his hand upon his sword to bring it out of the sheath, the Guru turned towards him and said to him that where this sword was to be used, you have fled the place, and here you are trying to show your valour. Humayun felt ashamed and the Guru blessed him to be upright, brave, and just.

The third watch (pahir) of the day, the Guru would spend with children and then the wrestling bouts of youngmen were organised daily. Guru Angad himself was fond of wrestling and as we have already seen that during his second meeting with Guru Nanak at latter's paddy fields he lifted three bundles of fodder and brought them to the sheds of animals in the house of the Guru. Wrestling and other such activities were dear to him because he very well understood that only a healthy body can afford to keep a healthy mind and soul. The number of the sects of yogis and other ascetics was increasing day in and day out but none was coming forward to save the culture, language and ethos of the land. The whole land of the five rivers had always been at the mercy of the hordes of invaders who, as and when desired, ransacked this area and plundered it to the hilt.

Guru Nanak had already noted that the so-called Kshatriyas have abandoned their duty and all have disowned their mother tongue in preference to the language of the Pathans and Mughals. Guru Nanak undertook to write and recite in Punjabi for which Guru Angad coined and shaped syllables of Gurmukhi to give them final form. The philosophy of Guru Nanak was itself not a philosophy of an arm-chair philosopher, and had the strength of shaping the behaviour pattern of society but Guru Angad, as is evident from his hymns, made it an applied philosophy in the true sense of the word. Spiritual and temporal affairs were taken care of by the philosophy of Guru Nanak which was nurtured, cherished and further spread under the solid guidance of Guru Angad Dev. In fact, Guru Angad humbled the pride of Sanskrit and Arabic scholars by producing Bala Janam Salehi, the seedling of Sikh philosophy, history and culture and in addition to this, paved the way for the compilation and editing of the (Guru) Granth Sahib. In the evening, Guru Angad continued the system initiated by Guru Nanak of listening to the kirtan and meeting the people coming from different places. Then for a watch, he would sit alone to delve deeper into his self and plan the further course of the house of the Guru. Thus spent the Guru his days and nights and inspired the people around to concentrate and realise the worth of satinam, the true Name of the Lord.

Besides groups of ascetics, yogis, goddess worshippers who listened to the preaching of the Guru (Angad) and became ready to reconsider their ways and means of spiritual life, Bhai Gurdas in his Varan (11, 15) counts some prominent Sikhs of Guru Angad Dev and their nature as follows:

"A Sikh of high order (paramhans) Bhai Paro was there of Julka caste for whom the Guru was full of grace. Another Sikh named Mallu was very brave and Bhai Kedara was a great devotee. I am fully beholden to Bhai Dev, Bhai Narayan Das, Bhai Bula and Bhai Dipa. Bhai Lalu, Bhai Durga and Jivanda were gems among the wisemen and, all the three were altruists. Jagga was of Dharani sub caste and Sansaru was one with the formless Lord. Khanu and Mayya were father and son and Govind of Bhandari sub­ caste was an appreciator of the meritorious ones. Jodh the angel cook, served the Guru and swam across the world ocean. The perfect Guru maintained their honour.".Besides these Sikhs many other names such as Bhai Jiva, Gujjar, the blacksmith, Dhinga, the barber et al. have been mentioned in Sri Gurpratap Sura} Granth (Rasi I, Ansu 13). A very interesting and educative episode of a Chaudhari has been mentioned by Bhai Santokh Singh. A Chaudhari of Khadur was alcoholic who after consuming liquor would abuse everybody. Effect of liquor appeared on him when due to this habit of his, he became epileptic. With this conduct of drinking, his disease grew day in and day out. Listening to the praises of Guru Angad, from someone, one day he came to the Guru and told him about his horrible and fatal disease. Paying full attention to his converse, the Guru said to him, "If you leave your habit of drinking liquor, you will never suffer this epilepsy again and your body will become hale and hearty. And if you disobey this discipline then you would be inviting this d isease you rself and you will have to suffer the consequences". The Chaudhari listened to the advice, bowed before the Guru and went back home. From the very day he stopped drinking and ultimately his epilepsy stood cured. His health improved, he enjoyed life without drinking and he passed his time happily. However, one day, in the rainy season he lost control over his self and considering himself healthy drank heavily. Getting fully intoxicated, he went to the terrace and cried loudly towards the direction of the house of the Guru by saying : O Guru, today I have set myself free from your command, and you do not know how the limitless delight I am enjoying. As he was boasting, he suffered the attack of epilepsy again and fell from the roof to die instantly.

As we have noted earlier that the daughter of Guru Angad Dev named Bibi Amaro was married to Bhai Jassu, the son of Bhai Manak Chand, the younger brother of Baba Amar Das. In the year 1479 AD (Guru) Amar Das was born into the family of Bhai Tej Bhan and his wife Bakht Kaur, variously recorded by chroniclers as Lachhami, Bhup Kaur and Rup Kaur. (Guru) Amar Das was married to 'Mansa Devi, daughter of Devi Chand of village Sankhatra, in Sialkot district and had four children-two sons Mohari and Mohan, and two daughters, Dani and Bhani.' (Guru) Amar Das was a Vaishnav who would regularly go to Haridvar for pilgrimage and bathe in the Ganga. On his twentieth trip to Haridvar, he was rebuked by an ascetic for having no spiritual preceptor so far. (Guru) Amar Das became sad on this lapse and pledged in his heart to have one. Bibi Amaro, daughter-in-law of the family when came to know of the mental stress of (Guru) Amar Das, escorted him to his father Guru Angad Dev at Khadur.

(Guru) Amar Das instantly became disciple and resolved to serve the Guru with single-minded devotion. For many days no converse took place between the new disciple and the Guru who otherwise in worldly relationship was father-in-law of the daughter of the Guru. Somehow, making humble supplication before the other Sikhs of the Guru, Amar Das took upon himself the service of bringing water for the langar and the bath of the Guru in the early morning. Now the seva (service ) of the sangat as well as of the Guru became the motive of his life. For this purpose (Guru) Amar Das would not mind braving the fierce wind, rain or stormy nights and always brought water from the River Beas. Day and night he served the Guru and the sangat and thus totally annihilated his pride of the high caste and relationship with the Guru. Say chroniclers that, serving thus, twelve years passed by and (Guru) Amar Das was regular in his duty of bringing water from the river. On one rainy and stormy night, he along with his brass water pitcher known as gagar in Punjabi, stumbled against a peg while passing through the weaver's colony. He fell down himself but did not let the gagar fall down. The weaver woman getting disturbed and irritated in her sleep called (Guru) Amar Das, 'Amaru Nithavan '-Amaru, the homeless who is having no shelter anywhere and thus is devoid of peace even in the night.

When the next day this incident came to the notice of the Guru, he open heartedly praised the devotion of (Guru) Amar Das and proclaimed him as "the home of the homeless, the honour of the unhonoured , the support of the supportless and the emancipator of the bonded ones." Listening to such words of the Guru for (Guru) Amar Das whereas the sangat applauded the sayings of the Guru, his two sons, Datu and Dasu became apprehensive that the charge of the Gurgaddi might go in the hands of (Guru) Amar Das making them to draw blank. Meanwhile, a wealthy man named Gonda came in the congregation of the Guru and told him as to how some ghost-natured people had ransacked, plundered and destroyed almost all of his village. He in mind had thought that if the peace prevailed in the village he would offer half of the land of his village to the good causes initiated by the Guru. The Guru asked both of his sons to move along with that man to procure peace for him and other villagers. Both of them refused and did not like to leave Khadur. The Guru then asked (Guru) Amar Das to see to this noble cause and gave him his own stick symbolizing the authority of the spirituo­ temporal wisdom of the Guru. (Guru) Amar Das went to that village and with the blessings of the Guru every affair was set right. (Guru) Amar Das was then asked by Guru Angad Dev to settle himself and his family presently at Basarke at the newly founded village now named after Gonda as Goindval. (Guru) Amar Das instantly accepted the advice of the Guru and Goindval started flourishing. This village was now made his headquarter by (Guru) Amar Das and being on the main road connecting Delhi and Lahore, later on became very important town. As Guru Angad Dev had already made up his mind to install Amar Das as the Guru, he on March 29, 1552, before the whole sangat handed over the responsibilities of Guruship to Amar Das, thus making him Guru Amar Das, the third Nanak. As say Mahima Prakash and Sri Gurpratap Suraj Granth, Guru Angad then after asking the sangat to henceforth obey the commands of Guru Amar Das himself lay down covering his face with a sheet and breathed his last to be one with the Divine light.