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Birth and Early Life

Guru Amar Das succeeded Guru Angad Dev in 1552 A.D. and led the Sikh movement for 22 long years. By the time or his succession he was already in the advanced stage of his life. Guruship came to him as a reward for his long perseverance, selfless service and unstinted devotion. His earlier life falls into two markedly distinct periods: (i) pre-discipleship, (ii) discipleship. Both of them have their own importance, and having a clear idea of each is vital to the understanding of the subsequent greatness achieved by the Guru. In this chapter we shall deal with the first of these periods.

Date of Birth

Finding out the exact date of birth of a great man is often enough a knotty problem. Comparatively, the date of his death is a much easier task, and understandably so. Attainment of greatness removes the element of obscurity, the main difficulty at the back of mystery enveloping his date of birth. Consequently, the death of a great man is a big event and is widely noticed. The life of Guru Amar Das provides a striking illustration of the validity of this statement. Whereas there is unanimity among the writers about the date of his death, wide ranging opinions have been expressed about his date of birth. A few examples are given below:

1. 1525/26 BK (1468/1469 A.D.)-Bhai Santokh Singh, Gur Pratap Suraj Granth, Ras I, Ansus 7 and 67.

2. 1526 BK (1469 A.D.)

    (a) Bhai Vir Singh, Gur Pratap Suraj Granth (edited), Vol. V., p. 1492 (footnote)

    (b) Sher Singh, Philosophy of Sikhism, p. 24

3. Baisakh 14, 1536 BK (5 May, 1479 A.D.)

    (a) Macauliffe, The Sikh Religion, Vol. II, p. 30.

    (b) Karam Singh, Gurpurb Nirnei (1912 A.D.), pp. 77-78

    (c) Bhai Kanh Singh, Mahan Kosh (second edition, 1960), p. 56.

    (d) Ganda Singh, Alakhaz--i-Twarikh-i-Sikhan (Amritsar, 1949), p. 4.

    (e) Indubhusan Banerjee, Evolution of th e Khal sa, Vol. I, p. 164.

    (f) Gurparnalian (Amritsar, 1952 A.D.-483 G .N. samvat)

4. 1566 BK (1509 A.D.)-(a) Mohd. Latif, A History of the Punjab (1891), p. 250.

    (b) Cunningham, J.D., A History of the Sikhs, p. 52.

    (c) Kesar Singh Chhibbar, Bansavali Nama (Punjab University, Chandigarh, 1972), p. 29.

The disparities revealed in the above-mentioned views are very wide and obviously it is impossible to reconcile them. But an attempt may still be useful to evaluate the various views and to see whether we can arrive at a conclusion which may be accepted as the most plausible of all, or the nearest approximation to truth.

The views given under 1 and 2 in the above table are almost identical so that we are really left with only three views which need to be discussed. They are: (i) 1526 B K (1469 A.D.), 1566 DK (1509 A.O.), (iii) 1536 BK (1479 A.D.)

The first view is held by Bhai Santokh Singh, Bhai Vir Singh, Dr Sher Singh and Dr Balbir Singh Dil. Apparently Bhai Vir Singh, Dr Sher Singh and Dr Dil have based their opinions on the evidence of Bhai Santokh Singh. Therefore, the basic point here to see is how far Santokh Singh is on firm ground. As far as this writer is concerned, he wrote his book in A.D. 1843 i.e. 269 years after the death of Guru Amar Das. He could yet have been relied upon, had he given his source of information. Since he has not done this, it is difficult to accept his view, particularly, when the earlier writers referring to the event have given a different version.

In support of his contention Dr Dil has cited Bhat Jalap and quoted the following line from a sawayya of his in praise of Guru Amar Das:1

ਤੀਸ ਇਕੁ ਅਰੁ ਪੰਜਿ ਸਿਧੁ ਪੈਤੀਸ ਨ ਖੀਣਉ ॥

Dr Dil has interpreted these words to mean that Guru Amar Das arrived in Guru Angad's Darbar at the age of 71 when in spite of his advanced age he was feeling no weakness. In support of his interpretation he has quoted Bhai Vir Singh (Shri Guru Granth Kosh, Part II, p. 772) and Principal Teja Singh (Shabdarath, Vol. IV, p. 1394). All the same, this is a very far-fetched interpretation. There is nothing in these words to suggest that Amar Das came to Guru Angad Dev when he had reached the age of 71. Secondly, it is impossible to accept his idea that Guru Amar Das realized God as soon as he arrived in the court of the second Guru. It was just the beginning of that process which gradually led him to the realization of God; it could not be its consummation. Even if this line of Jalap is made the basis of our calculation it may point to the age when Amar Das ascended the Gurgaddi rather than when he joined the second Guru.

Moreover, the said interpretation of Bhai Vir Singh and Principal Teja Singh, on which Dr Dil places his reliance, is not accepted by Prof. Sahib Singh, a recognized authority on the exposition of the Sikh scriptures. According to Prof. Sahib Singh2 the line under question refers to the One God who is indestructible and is the One constant factor pervading the cycle of days (means time), the five elements of nature and the thirty five letters of the Gurumukhi alphabet. This interpretation, even if it is not accepted as entirely satisfactory, has the merit of much greater credibility than the one on which Dr Dil has relied.

The second view is advocated by Kesar Singh Chhibbar, Cunningham, Latif and Randhir Singh. Cunningham and Latif like Bhai Santokh Singh are comparatively recent writers. Their source seems to be Kesar Singh Chhibbar's Bansavali Nama. Now Chhibbar is an early writer, no doubt, but there are some difficulties in the way of accepting his view. (i) His opinion runs counter to the view of Sarup Das Bhalla who being of the Guru's own family is decidedly more knowledgeable about this subject than Chhibbar. If we calculate on the basis of Chbibbar's evidence, the total age of the third Guru comes to 65 years. On the other hand, Mehma Prakash hints at 100 odd years being his age when he passed away. (ii) It goes against the general Sikh tradition which believes that the Guru lived up to a very ripe old age. Hence it is not easy to accept this second view either.

Now we come to the third view favouring 1536 BK as the date of birth. The chief advocates of this view are Macauliffe, Karam Singh, Kanh Singh, Ganda Singh and Gulab Singh. Most of them are also recent writers but with a difference. Karam Singh, Kanh Singh and Ganda Singh are serious-minded scholars who would not accept things unless they stand the test of careful scrutiny. Macauliffe being a western writer may not have the same firm grip on the subject but he was too mature to accept matters like important dates uncritically. The fifth writer in this group, Gulab Singh, is a Gurparnali writer whose main theme is the chronology of the Sikh Gurus and their families. He has expressed his view unequivocally:

"Accept Samvat 1536 Vaisakh Sudi 14, Baisakh 20, Friday as the auspicious day" (Gurparnali, p. 28)

Of the three views discussed above the one relating to 1536 BK (1479 A.D.) seems to be the most plausible. Of course, even this is not beyond the range of questioning but until we come across some authentic evidence to contradict it, it may be accepted as the nearest approximation to reality. Guru Amar Das made a number of visits to Hardwar. His ancestors were also devoted Hindus and had some family Pandas at Hardwar. It is regretted that no recorded evidence regarding this matter has so far been traced out in the Vahis of l these Pandas. But this is an invaluable source which is the only hope left to resolve the problem finally.

Ancestry

The ancestors of Guru Amar Das hailed from the Bhalla branch of Khatris. The Khatris were descendants of the Kshatriyas of ancient India. Originally, they were warriors and as such their chief function was to run the administration and to fight in defense of their people against enemies from within or without. But in course of time, they went through a process of social change and took to a few other respectable occupations as well. Like other Hindu varnas, that of the Kashatriyas too gradually branched off into numerous jatis (castes and subcastes). Bhallas formed one of them. Tradition traces their descent to the famous Bharat, son of Raja Dashratha by his queen Kaikaye, and half-brother of the famous Shri Ram Chandra. But the long history of the descending lineage connected with it is not available anywhere and as such nothing positive can be said as to how far the tradition is valid or may be relied upon.

Even among the immediate ancestors of Amar Das, only a few names are known. According to Kesar Singh Chhibbar, Vishnu Das Bhalla was the great grandfather of the third Guru. Vishnu Das's son Harji was married into a Marwaha Khatri family. Harji Bhalla's son was Tejo or Tej Bhan, the Guru's father.3 Tej Bhan had four sons the eldest of whom was Amar Das. The other three, according to Giani Ameer Singh4 were Ishar Das (father of Bhai Gurdas), Khem Rai (father of Baba Sawan Mal) and Manak Chand. However, our information about them amounts to almost nothing. The name of Amar Das's mother had been given variously. Her name was Lakho according to Kesar Singh Cbhibbar, Lachbmi according to the Gurparnali of Gulab Singh, Rup Kaur according to Bhai Santokh Singh, Bhup Kaur according to another Gurparnali writer, lakhmi or Lachhmi according to Gian Singh and Bakhat Kaur according to Macauliffe. The confusion seems to have arisen from the inaccurate reading of the same word 'lakho' by different writers. If the words are not neatly written, as is often the case with hand-written Gurmukhi manuscripts, they may conveniently be mistaken for other similar words. In this case too, the same thing seems to have taken place. The word 'Lakho' was read by some as Bakho, by some others as Bhupo or Rupo . Then the change from Bakho to Bakhat Kaur or from Rupo to Rup Kaur or from Bhupo to Bhup Kaur was not difficult. As regards Lachhmi, the change from Lakho to this word involves no misreading but accords with the natural character of the Punjabi language. In Punjabi the sound chh can easily take the form of the sound kh. And hence Lakho may well be the abbreviation of Lakhmi or Lachhmi. Bhai Jodh Singh has given it as Sulakhni which is nothing but an amplification of the same name Lakho.

Birth Place

The ancestral home of Amar Das was the village of Basarke. The place disappeared long ago and its remains are now found in the form of a mound. What happened to it? Why it disappeared and when? It is not possible to answer these questions as yet. A reference to the land record of the village concerned needs to be made. A new village has come into being over the years, which bears the name of Basarke Gillan. This village is just three quarters of a kilometre from the site of the old Basarke. Basarke Gillan is now in Amritsar District and is situated about 7 miles to the west of the Amritsar city. It may be reached from two directions. From the Chheharta Railway Station it is about 3 miles (5 kilometres) in the south-western direction. From Guru ki Wadali, the birth place of the sixth Guru, situated at a distance of a mile and half from Chheharta, the distance is just one and a half miles. The place is also approachable from the Tarn Taran side. Its distance from Birh Baba Budha is 5 miles.

Though the old Basarke of Guru Amar Das's days is no more in existence, a few remnants are still available indicating the association of the Guru with the place. The Gurdwara Sanh Sahib is a historical gurdwara marking the place where the third Guru had shut himself up in a self-locked room after being forced by Datu, a disgruntled son of the second Guru, to leave Goindwal. There is also a well there called Khuh Guru Amar Das. Close to the modern village of Basarke Gillan an old tank bears the name of Bibi Amro da Talab (Tank Bibi Amro). Probably this tank was in existence even earlier than the time of Guru Amar Das or Bibi Amro but it seems to have acquired its name from the fact of Bibi Amro's Samadhi (memorial marking the site of her cremation) standing on its bank. Bibi Amro, it may be explained, was a daughter of Guru Angad Dev and was married into the family of a brother of Guru Amar Das.5

Nobody can say at what point of time the ancestors of Amar Das came to live in Basarke, but if we are to believe Kesar Singh Chhibbar, the family migrated from Basarke to Gillwali in the time of Harji and it was there at Gillwali that Tej Bhan, father of Guru Amar Das, was born. There the family did well in grain trade and earned lots of money. When Tejo (Tej Bhan) reached the age of 12, he was married into a family of Duggal Khatris. Thereafter, the family migrated to Basarke. Since the writer is silent about the circumstances which first led the family to shift to Gillwali and later to return to Basarke, it is not possible to explain the episode correctly. No other writer has even referred to this matter. However, it may be presumed that the reason could not be the better prospects of earning wealth offered by the new place as the family decided to return to Basarke notwithstanding the fact that there it was doing so well economically. The possible reason may be believed to lie in some kind of insecurity which the members of the family might have felt on account of some external attack or internal trouble or outbreak of some epidemic.

Occupation

According to Kesar Singh Chhibbar,6 the forefathers of A mar Das earned their living by trade, including trade in grains. He gives no hint whether they had any income from agriculture as well. On the other hand Mehma Prakash7 and Suraj Prakash8 refer to agriculture as the family's chief occupation. Macauliffe9 strikes a balance and says that the family lived partly by agriculture and partly by trade.

The financial position of the family is nowhere stated clearly but it does not seem to be correct that the family was poor as has been made out by some writers like Trumpp, Latif and Khazan Singh, though it may be wrong to say that it was rich. To be a little more precise, it was a family of moderate means. Some idea about its financial situation may be had from the fact that Guru Amar Das could afford to visit Hardwar once or sometimes twice a year regularly for several years on end and he stopped it only when he had completed a full score of these visits.

However, when Amar Das grew up, he showed preference for trade over agriculture. Sarup Das Bhalla10 makes the point clear when he says that Amar Das took no interest in the family profession of agriculture. The case of this indifference is attributed to his deep involvement in religious devotion. But there are indications that he often gave a helping hand in the family's trading business. Mehma Prakash Sri Guru Amar Das (author's name is missing) refers to his indulgence in silk trade. Another writer, Arur Singh, in his small book called Amar Jeewan says (p. 4) that the Guru in his early days used to hawk provisions of general use in the countryside.

Education

There is no definite evidence to prove that Amar Das was imparted any formal education, yet it may safely be presumed that his mind was not unadorned by learning. For a person to conduct trading business successfully, the knowledge of the 3Rs is a must. As a trader Amar Das had to purchase and sell articles of trade. That involved considerable arithmetical calculations which only an educated person could perform. Moreover, he had to keep accounts of receipts and payments. As was often the case, a good deal of purchasing or selling was done on credit basis. That also necessitated the acquisition of a certain amount of proficiency in accountancy. With the passage of years, however, his interest in education seems to have grown tremendously. As his interest in religion deepened, his desire to study ancient Hindu scriptures also mounted. His frequent visits to Hardwar provided him with ample opportunities for self-study and in course of time he became an adept in the religious lore of his creed. This fact comes out clearly from his writings enshrined in the Holy Granth Sahib. His marvelous poetry as well as the thought-content of his writings are a proof positive of the depth of his understanding of the philosophical roots of Hinduism. No man uninstructed in such profound matters of higher education can write about them in such a masterly manner as Guru Amar Das has done.

Physical Health

As there is no doubt about Amar Das's education, so also there-is no ground for questioning his robust physique. The necessity of being on his legs constantly for the ·purpose of his trading business gave him a stout bodily build which was further strengthened by the frequency of his long and arduous journeys from his native place to Hardwar and back. Knowing what great difficulties and hardships a traveler had to face in those days when means of transport and communication were so scanty and ill-developed, one is inevitably ·filled with admiration for the marvelous grit and stamina shown by Amar Das in the performance of these travels. Tradition has it that Amar Das made a trip to Hardwar once a year, often once in every 6 months, and he continued this practice for years on end until his journeys reached the aggregate of twenty. Without any doubt this is a feat which a man with a robust physique alone could perform. It was his strong physique which enabled him to accomplish the hard service (labour of service) at the court of Guru Angad Dev. Even more than that, it was on account of this strong and healthy body that the third Guru was able to lead a fruitful and active life up to such a ripe old age.

Marriage

Unlike the prevailing custom of the time, the marriage of Amar Das was solemnized after he had attained the age of a major. All writers are agreed that in his case there was no child marriage. But the agreement ends here. Kesar Singh Chhibar says that the age of Amar Das was 23 years when his marriage took place11 The 'Bikrami Sam vat' then was I 589. Obviously he has calculated the number of years on the basis of 1566 BK being the birth year of Amar Das. The Gurparnali writer Gulab Singh also accepts12 the Bikrami year 1589 as the year of the marriage. But if we were to accept his view about the Guru's date of birth, it would mean that the marriage took place when Amar Das was 53 years of age - a totally untenable position. Macauliffe13 gives the age of Amar Das at the time of his marriage as 23 years and 10 months. When worked out, this would mean that it took place in 1559 BK and not in 1589 BK. Mehma Prakash Sri Guru Amar Das says that the marriage took place in 1552 BK when according to it the Guru's age was 20 years. It is very difficult to say which of these different views is correct but if we ignore various Samvat years mentioned by different writers, the consensus seems to be in favour of 20 to 23 years as the age at the time of marriage. The view that the marriage transpired at the age of 53 is fantastic.

A similar divergence of opinion prevails with regard to the name of Guru Amar Das's wife. It is Mansa Devi according Chhibbar and Macauliffe, Mali (Malan) according to Saundha and Sarup Das Bhalla, and Ramo (Rami) according to Giani Gian Singh. Gulab Singh, the Gurparnali writer, gives all the three names without telling which of them he prefers. The riddle is too hard to be resolved fully. But two points may be ventured in this connection. One, until recent times it has been a popular Indian custom for married ladies to bear two names-one given by their parents and the other by their in-laws. Secondly, when copies of manuscripts are prepared by transcription, it is no rare phenomenon for a transcriber to miswrite names of persons and places. If these two points are borne in mind, we may say that the real name was Mali or Malan as has been mentioned in Mehma Prakash, the earliest source on the third Guru. Probably this name Mali was later misread as Rami. As regards Mansa Devi, this might be the name which the Guru’s wife had got from her in-laws.

Children

Mehma Prakash14 of Sarup Das Bhalla writes that Guru Amar Das had two sons and two daughters. This view is shared by Bhai Santokh Singh and Macauliffe15 On the other hand, Kesar Singh Chhibbar,6 Tara Singh Narotam,17 Gian Singh18 and Gulab Singh19 refer only to two sons and one daughter. There is thus no controversy about the number of sons. Their names Mohan and Mohri are also accepted by all with the exception of Chhibbar who confuses Mohri's son Anand with Mohan. These writers are also agreed that Mohan was elder to Mohri. The case of the female issues, however, bristles with some difficulties. Gulab Singh, Kesar Singh Chhibbar and Gian Singh mention only Bhani. Sarup Das Bhalla refers to two daughters but only gives the name of Bhani. Macauliffe following the example of Bhai Santokh Singh gives the names of both the daughters, Dani and Bhani. Of the two, Dani is regarded as the elder but both of them are shown senior in age to both of their brothers, Mohan and Mohri.

All available evidence shows that for many long years after his marriage Amar Das had no issue. Writers such as Kesar Singh Chhibbar,20 Bhai Kesar Singh21 and Gulab Singh22 state that Bibi Bhani was born in 1590 BK (1533 AD), Mohan in 1593 BK (1536 AD) and Mohri in 1596 BK (1539 AD). Tara Singh Narotam differs only on Bibi Bhani's date of birth because he places it in 1591 BK. This is however a minor difference and may be overlooked. None of these writers makes any reference to the other daughter Bibi Dani. But since she was elder to Bibi Bhani it may be presumed that her birth took place two to three years prior to the birth of Bibi Bhani. Mehma Prakash23 gives no dates regarding the birth of any of the four children. But it contains a clear hint which amounts to repudiation of the abovementioned view regarding the births of Mohan and Mohri. It is said here that when Amar Das met Guru Angad Dev at Khadur (perhaps during his second visit) he stated in answer to a query from the Guru that he had no male issue and had only two daughters whom he had already married off. The Guru was kind to him and blessed him with two sons. Both these sons were later born when Amar Das was living at Goindwal, of course, before he had assumed the Guruship. Both the sons were born together but Mohan, as the account of Mehma Prakash goes, was born first. According to another version Mohri was the first to be born, a fact which is said to be supported by his name Mohri literally meaning 'leading'. Now, should the version of Mehma Prakash be accepted, we may have to admit that a long span of time intervened between the births of the daughters and the sons. This latter view seems to be more plausible than the view offered by the Gurparnali writers.

In all probability all ·the four children of Guru Amar Das were born at Basarke. Even when he went to Khadur Sahib, his family continued to reside at Basarke. Again it was here at Basarke that the marriages of his daughters, if not of his sons, were performed.24 No information is available about the time when the eldest daughter Bibi Dani and the eldest son Mohan were married off. But Tara Singh Narotam, Kesar Singh Chhibbar, and Gulab Singh all furnish information about the dates of the marriages or Bibi Bhani and Baba Mohri. With the exception of Chhibbar, all of them mention that Bibi Bhani was married off in 1599 BK (1542 AD) and Baba Mohri in 1603 BK25 (1546 AD). Chhibbar gives 1602 BK (1545 AD) for Bibi Bhani's marriage but is silent about Baba Mohri's marriage. Macauliffe26 puts Bibi Bhani's marriage still later and plates it in 1610 BK (1653 AD) but it is difficult to accept this view because by 1610 BK the Bibi had reached the age of 20 years which was considered too late for marriage of girls in those days. Moreover, if we accept this view, it will mean that the marriage took place after Amar Das had ascended the Gurgaddi and established his headquarters permanently at Goindwal. As we have seen earlier, this position is untenable. Kesar Singh Chhibbar's27 view that Amar Das was already living at Goindwal in 1602 BK (1545 AD) when Bhani's marriage was performed, is equally inadmissible because if the marriage had taken place at Goindwal, then Guru Angad would have known it already and he would not have asked Amar Das about the position of his children.

Mehma Prakash gives no dates regarding these matters but makes a significant statement which leaves no doubt in the minds of its readers that the marriages of the two daughters were performed at his home in Basarke, The elder daughter was married to one Rama or the Surhi (Bedi according to Macauliffe) branch of Khatris while the younger one was married to Bhai Jetha, son of Shri Hardas, a Sodhi Khatri. An interesting anecdote is told of the manner in which Bhai Jetha (his real name perhaps was Ram Das but being the first-born was commonly called Jetha) was selected as the would-be husband of Bibi Bhani. This anecdote is found mentioned in Bansavali Nama,28 Suraj Prakash,29Panth Parkash,30 The Sikh Religion and several other works of Sikh writers. As the story is told by Macauliffe, 31 one day the Guru's wife seeing Bibi Bhani playing remarked to her husband that as Bhani had grown up, they ought to search for a husband for her. The Guru ordered the search to be made. When the Purohit was ready to depart, Bibi Bhani's mother saw a boy outside her door hawking some articles of food. On carefully observing him, she said to the family priest, "Search for a youth like him". Hearing this, the Guru ordered the priest to pause and exclaimed, "You need not now go. He is his own parallel, for God has made none other like unto him". On this the Guru called the youth and enquired from him about his family and other particulars. After that he sent him with marriage presents to his father Har Das in Lahore and had the betrothal ceremony performed.

There is, however, some evidence to show that the boy Jetha was not wholly unknown to the Guru and his family, as the chroniclers have caused it to appear. Giani Gian Singh32 says that Jetha had his Nanke at Basarke. After the death of his parents he had left his home and come to stay there with his maternal grand-parents and used to earn his living by hawking boiled gram or wheat. This view is more or less supported by the author of Mehma Prakash Sri Guru Amar Das 33 wherein it is said that after the death of his father, young Jetha moved from Lahore to Basarke and stayed with his Masi (mother's sister). So he was no stranger and the Guru's family knew fully well who he was, what he did and what kind of temperament he possessed. Even so, the manner in which the engagement of Bibi Bhani was determined shows the strong faith of Guru Amar Das in the all-determining providential power.

Bhai Santokh Singh 34 writes that the solemnization of this marriage took place at Goindwal sometime after Guru Amar Das had assumed the Guruship, Macauliffe35 toes the line of Santokh Singh. But as it has been said earlier, this view cannot be upheld. Mehma Prakash 36 makes the point very clear when it says:

Guru Amar Das stated plainly:

Two daughters I had; both have been married off.

ਗੁਰੂ ਅਮਰ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਸਭ ਕਥਾ ਸੁਣਾਈ । ਦੁਇ ਕੰਨਿਆ ਥੀ ਸੋ ਦੋਊ ਬਿਆਹੀ ।

According to the same authority, this statement was made by Amar Das before the second Guru when he met him at Khadur Sahib during his first or second visit. Two inferences naturally follow from this : (i) the marriage was celebrated at Basarke and not at Goindwal as stated by Bhai Santokh Singh and Macauliffe; (ii) it was performed many years before Guru Amar Das ascended the Gurgaddi.

References

1. Amar Kavi Guru Amar Das (1975), p, 13.

2. Bhattan de Swayye (Steek) (Ludhiana, 1961), p. 160.

3. The version of Mehma Prakash Sri Guru Amar Das is somewhat different from that of Kesar Singh's Gurparnali. Here Tej Bhan is shown as son of Bhairo who was son of Harji. This means that Harji was not the grandfather of Guru Amar Das but was his great-grandfather. According to this version, Harji was married to Milawi. They had a son named Bhairo. Bhairo was married to Basanti. Tej Bhan, the father of Guru Amar Das, was their son.

4. Giani Ameer Singh, Anand Sagar Teeka (1959), p. 115.

5. Dr Dil, op. cit., p. 18.

6. Bansavali Nama, p. 29.

7. Sarup Das Bhalla, op. cit., p. 40.

8. Santokh Singh, op. cit., Ras I, Ansu 14.

9. Macauliffe, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 30.

10. Mehma Prakash. p. 40.

11. Bansavali Nama, p. 29.

12. Gurparnalian, p. 95.

13. The Sikh Religion, Vol. II, p. 30.

14. Sarup Das Bhalla, op. cit., pp. 41, 270.

15. Tire Sikh Religion, Vol. II, p. 30.

16. Bansavali Nama, pp. 29-30.

17. Guru Tirath Sangrah, pp. 117-118.

18. Panth Prakash, p. 83.

19. Gurparnalian, p. 95.

20. Bansavali Nama, p. 30.

21. Gurparnalian, p. 5.

22. ibid., p. 95.

23. Sarup Das Bhalla, op. cit., pp. 61-65.

24. Sarup Das Bhal1a, op. cit., p. 41.

25. The data of Baba Mohri's marriage given here does not seem to be correct. If we accept the view that he was born in 1596 BK, he would be only seven years old at the time of his marriage in 1603 BK. If we go by the view of Sarup Das Bhalla he would be even less. On the contrary, marriages in tender years were not uncommon then and a marriage at the early age of seven may not be ruled out as something: incapable of happening.

26. The Sikh Religion, Vol. II, p. 91.

27. Kesar Singh Chhibbar, op. cit., p. 31.

28. ibid.

29. Santokh Singh, op. cit., p. 91.

30. Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 100.

31. The Sikh Religion, p. 91.

32. Panth Prakash, p. 100.

33. P. 14 - quoted in Dr. Dil, op. cit., p. 26.

34. Suraj Prakash, Ras I, Ansu 41.

35. The Sikh Religion, p. 91.

36. Sarup Das Bhalla, op. cit., p. 61.