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The Phulkian Misal

The Phulkian rulers descended from the Bhatti Rajputs. They trace their ancestry to Jesal, the founder of the state and city of Jesalmer, who was driven from his kingdom in 1180. He wandered northwards where Prithvi Raj was the king of Ajmer and Delhi and the most powerful ruler in Hindustan. Jesal wanted to settle near Hisar. He had four sons and the third of these, Hemhel, sacked the town of Hisar, seized a number of villages in its neighbourhood and overran the country up to the walls of Delhi.1 He was beaten back by Shams-ud-Din Iltutmish, the Sultan of Delhi, but was afterwards received into favour and made governor of Sirsa and Bathinda in 1212. He died two years later. He was succeeded by his son Jandra, the father of twenty one sons. The succession continued till Khiwa became the head of the clan. Khiwa’s Rajput wife could not bear any child. He married a second wife, the daughter of one Basir, a Jat zamindar of Neli. The marriage was considered a disgrace by his Rajput kinsmen and Khiwa was, ever afterwards, called khot which signifies an inferior and degrading admixture.2

Khiwa was blessed with an heir, but the first wife, jealous of her rival, bribed the mid-wife to substitute a girl for the boy, whom she took into the jungle and placed in a dry water-course. A man, passing by, saw the infant, took it home and adopted as his son. The mid-wife could not keep the secret and the Rajput wife was compelled to confess her guilt. After a long search, the boy was found and restored to his father. He was named Sidhu and from him the Sidhu tribe derived its name.3

Sidhu, who was, according to Rajput custom, reckoned as of the caste of his mother, a Jat, had four sons from whom descended the families of Kaithal and Phulkian chiefs. When Babur invaded India in 1524, Sanghar, a descendant of the Sidhus, waited on him at Lahore and joined his army with a few of his followers. But shortly thereafter he was killed at the battle of Panipat, on 21st April 1526. After gaining the empire of Delhi, Babur gave the chaudhariyat of the territory to the south-west of Delhi, to Sanghar’s son, Beeram. The office was confirmed to him by Humayun. Beeram, mostly, lived at Neli, the village of Sidhu’s maternal relations. He rebuilt Bedowal (Bedowali) which had become deserted. He was killed about the year 1560, fighting against the Bhattis.4

From his two sons, Beeram was succeeded by Mehraj to the chaudhariyat. Mehraj’s son, Sattu, succeeded his father. He was followed by his son, Pakhu. Pakhu was also killed in a skirmish with the Bhattis. He was succeeded by his son, Mohan.5

Due to the harassment of the Bhatti Rajputs, Mohan moved to Nathana. The Bhullars and Dhaliwals who were becoming the tappedars of that territory would not allow Mohan and his people to found a village and settle there.6

In these very days, Guru Hargobind happened to visit that area. All the Sikhs paid homage to the Guru. Mohan made an appeal to him to ask the Bhullars to allow them to settle. When the Guru pleaded for Mohan and his men Bhullars refused to spare even an inch of land for them. The Guru asked Mohan to go and found a village which he did in 1627, and named it Mehraj after the name of his great-grandfather.7  The opposition and hostility of the Bhullars was to no avail due to the armed aid by the Guru’s men. It was at Mehraj that Guru Hargobind fought against the Mughals in 1631. Mohan and his men actively participated in the battle of Mehraj on the side of the Guru.8

Mohan, along with his eldest son, Rup Chand, was killed in a fight against the Bhattis. After Mohan’s death, the next surviving son, Kala, succeeded to the chaudhariyat and also to the guardianship of his deceased brother’s sons, Phul and Sandali.9

Chaudhary Phul and His Successors

The Phulkian rulers of Patiala, Nabha and Jind descended from Phul. He was the second son of Rup Chand, by Mai Ambi, a Jat woman.10 The dates of his birth and death are not known with certainty. As discussed by S.N. Banerjee,11 according to the official note preserved in the Foreign Office Records, Phul was born in 1619, and he died in 1689. (Sir) Attar Singh and Lepel Griffin while accepting this date of birth, place his death in the year 1652. Giani Gian Singh, the author of the Tawarikh Guru Khalsa, gives the date of birth as 1688 BK. which corresponds to A.D. 1631. From yet another source, which supplies the horoscope of Phul, he was born on Chaitra Sudi 9, 1699, which corresponds to April 17, 1643, and that his death occurred in Har, Sudi 6, 1739, which corresponds to July 29, 1682. The year of birth taken from the horoscope appears to be highly probable and is confirmed by the story that Phul was a mere boy when he was conducted by his uncle Kala to the presence of Guru Har Rai in 1654. From all the dates of Phul’s birth, April 17, 1643, seems to be more plausible.

The date of death has also been variously given as 1652, 1682 and 1689. The first may be ruled out as impossible in view of the date of birth accepted above. Out of the remaining two, 168912 appears to be more probable as it is consistent with certain acknowledged facts of Phul’s career.

As the tradition goes when Guru Har Rai went to the Malwa on a preaching mission, Kala, accompanied by Phul and Sandali, came to pay his respects to the Guru. In the presence of the Guru, the young Phul patted his stomach. On the Guru’s asking, Kala told him that he did so when he felt hungry. The Guru blessed Phul by saying that,

“what mattered the hunger of one belly Phul would satisfy the hunger of thousands. The horses of Phul’s successors would drink water from the Jamuna and their raj would extend to it.”13

Prophecy was amply fulfilled as is borne out by the history of the Phulkians.

Kala died in April 1661, when Phul was yet in his teens-Possessed of the qualities of leadership and having received the necessary training, Phul, however, did not find himself unequal to the task that confronted him after the death of his uncle.14

At the very outset of his career, Phul realised the need of a place, separate from Mehraj, where he could establish his headquarters and carry on his activities unhampered. So, he founded a village, five miles east of Mehraj to which he gave his own name Phul.15 Though the village Phul was founded in 1663, it was not till 1671, that Phul grew sufficiently populous with a fort befitting its position.

An anecdote is related in connection with the founding of Phul. Close to Mehraj there lived an ascetic, named Sumerpuri, who subsisted only on milk. One wet evening when Phul took milk to him he found the sadhu in trance. It continued raining for the whole night and Phul kept standing by the side of Sumerpuri covering him by a blanket. When the sadhu opened his eyes in the morning he found Phul standing near him with the pot of milk brought for him. Pleased with Phul’s devotion the ascetic blessed him to found a new village for his residence.16

The chaudhariyat had been duly confirmed by the Mughal government.17 Phul was required to credit the government revenue to the Sirhind treasury. For about a quarter of a century Phul remained the chaudhary at the newly founded headquarters. The period was marked by two events. One was the customary war with the Bhattis and the other was a more serious conflict with Daulat Khan and his son, Isa Khan. The Bhattis of Bhatner and the Brars of Talwandi Sabo were hostile to each other. The Bhattis made large-scale preparations under the leadership of Mahabat Khan and Mahbub Khan. On the other side, Dalla Brar of Talwandi Sabo, invoked the help of Chaudhary Phul who readily responded to the call from a kinsman for aid against the hereditary enemies. The two Brar Sardars assumed the offensive, attacked the Bhattis, killed their leaders, Mahabat Khan and Mahbub Khan, and won a victory over them.18

Chaudhary Phul’s fast rise excited the jealousy of his neighbours. One of them, the chaudhary of Kangar, represented to Isa Khan who sent one Chacho Khan Manj with a contingent, who occupied Phul and made the chaudhary a prisoner. Jhanda, a relative of Chaudhary Phul came with 100 men, killed Chacho Khan and expelled his men.

Isa Khan felt very irritated over this disaster and conducted a raid of village Phul personally. Unable to hold against the powerful enemy, Chaudhary Phul retired to Bedowali, the former seat of his ancestors. The village of Phul was plundered. But shortly after, Chaudhary Phul recovered his village and made a counter raid upon the territory of his enemies, whom he defeated. The Mughal officer, stationed at Jagraon, demanded the revenue from Chaudhary Phul. The latter refused to pay. The Mughal officer, accompanied by his men, came and plundered he village of Phul and took with him some persons as hostages. The chaudhary was absent from his headquarters at that time. On return, he led his men against the Mughal officer and brought him as a prisoner to his headquarters. The chaudhary treated the prisoner with kindness and sent him back safely. This raised Chaudhary Phul in the estimation of the people.19

For his inability to pay the land-revenue of the area under him, ultimately, Chaudhary Phul, fell a prisoner in the hands of the faujdar of Sirhind. He was taken to Sirhind where he was placed under surveillance.20 It seems that, owing to frequent disturbances or skirmishes, he could not collect the revenue or had to incur expenditure which left him with no balance to pay the fiscal dues.

In concert with Sher Muhammad Khan of Malerkotla, Chaudhary Phul devised a means of securing his release. He resorted to the yogic exercise of suspending his breath which he had learnt from the ascetic, named Sumerpuri. The state of suspended animation was taken for death and the body was handed over to the Nawab of Malerkotla who agreed to have it sent to village Phul. When, however, the body was being carried, Phul’s sons, Tilok Chand and Ram Chand, who were on their way to Sirhind, met the party at Bahadurpur, near Dhanaula, presently in the Sangrur district. Unaware of the actual position of suspended animation Chaudhary Phul’s sons cremated him with due ceremonies. Thus, Chaudhary Phul died under deplorable circumstances when yet in vigour of manhood.21 According to Karam Singh, before suspending his breath the chaudhary concerted with Gidiya22 (a mirasi) that he would take his body to his home and hand it over to his elder wife, Bali, who knew how to restore the breath. Gidiya took the body and it was taken over by Phul’s sons. It is said that Mai Bali and Sumerpuri who knew how to revive breath were away from the village. So the needful could not be done. There is yet another version given by Bute Shah that Chaudhary Phul went to the hut of Sumerpuri and, not finding him there, practised pranayam or stopping the breath but carried it too far. The sons took him for dead and his body was burnt.23 Still another version is that he died of apoplexy contracted while a prisoner of the governor of Sirhind.24 But the first version of death having been caused by pranayam is based on more reliable evidence and may be accepted as true.

When Phul’s elder wife, Bali, arrived, hearing of what had taken place, she declared that her husband had been burnt alive. Raji, the younger wife, who had ordered the cremation of her husband’s body, was so much disconcerted by her mistake that she abandoned the village and went to live with her brother-in-law, Sukhan Lal, a Brar, while Bali and her children continued to live in the village of Phul.25

Chaudhary Phul’s elder wife, Bali, was the daughter of one Jassa Dhillon, belonging to village Dhilwan. The second one, Raji, was the daughter of Dadu of village Sodhana.26

From the first marriage Chaudhary Phul had three sons: Tilok Chand, Ram Chand and Raghu; and from the second wife also three sons: Jhandu, Chato and Takht Mal.27 Of the three sons by the first wife, Raghu was killed in a clash at Panjgrian, about 9 miles south-east of Faridkot. Between Tiloka and Rama on the one hand and their step-brothers on the other, there were constant bickerings. Ultimately, the step-mother along with her sons withdrew from Phul, first to Harnam Singhwala (three miles north of the village of Phul) and then further north, to Gumti where the family settled down. But Lepel Griffin thinks, that the step-brothers of Tiloka and Rama had to give up all claim to the ancestral property on account of their inability to pay their share of the dues demanded by the imperial government and they were assigned the village of Gumti.28 The first version seems more probable.

The domestic disputes kept Tiloka and Rama busy for some years after the death of their father in 1689. Then, they started setting their house in order. Both the brothers were attracted by the lofty teachings and magnetic personality of Guru Gobind Singh. They became the devoted followers of the Guru and rendered him assistance on more than one occasion. The names of the two brothers were usually mentioned together. They always acted in concert and there existed the best of brotherly feelings between them for many years.

We cannot exactly say as to when they first came in contact with Guru Gobind Singh but as early as 1696, we find the Guru appreciating their devotion in a letter addressed to the two brothers. This hukamnama was issued by the Guru to the two brothers when he was fighting against the hill chiefs. The hukamnama reads:

“It is the order of Shri Guru ji that Bhai Tiloka and Bhai Rama, may the Guru protect you all, should come to our presence with your troops. We are much pleased with you. Your house is ours. Immediately on the receipt of this order you should come here. . . . Come with your horsemen. Come without fail. My blessings are on you. . . . Do come. I have sent a dress for you.” 2nd Bhadon, 1753 (i.e., August 2, 1696.)29

This shows a link between the Phul’s house and the Guru-ghar. It is believed that Tiloka was present at Chamkaur in December 1705.  There is another version which seems more probable. It is said that the two brothers, while at Sirhind for paying the revenue, heard of the disaster at Chamkaur and reached there in disguise. They searched the bodies of the Guru’s sons and duly cremated them, as also the corpses of the other Sikh martyrs. Later, while staying at Damdama (Talwandi Sabo) the Guru called the two brothers and blessed them. Receiving pahul the two brothers got admitted to the fold of Sikhism.30 Before their departure the Guru gave them a few weapons— swords, daggers, battle-axes and a nishan sahib, which remained preserved in their family over the centuries.

In 1710-11, Tilok Singh and Ram Singh sent, at their own expense, a number of recruits to fight under Banda Singh though they did not go personally. It is very probable that due to the confusion caused by Banda Singh’s vigorous action in the Punjab the two brothers consolidated their position in the area under them.

Tilok Singh was, by nature, quiet and peaceful and punctually credited the revenue to the faujdar’s treasury. Ram Singh, on the other hand, was self-assertive and bellicose and these qualities were requisite for a man who had to create a state. He is said to have first distinguished himself by attacking and dispersing a large body of marauders who were passing by the village of Phul laden with plunder.31 He unburdened them of their looted and stolen booty including cattle. He founded the village of Rampur. He made a raid into the Bhatti territory and defeated Hasan Khan, one of the old enemies of his family, and carried off much spoil-money, horses and cattle. His next victory was over the Muhammadan chief of Kot whom he defeated and plundered.

It is said that Ram Singh was taken captive about the year 1707, by the nazim of Hisar from where be soon made good his escape and returned to Phul. After some time he left Phul and retired to his father-in-law’s village Dhapali, three miles to the east of Phul. Soon after, he shifted to Bhadaur and from there to Rampur which is situated about 4 ½ miles to the south of Phul. In all probability, he made Rampur his usual place of residence in 1708, where he lived for the rest of his life.32

It seems that for the first few years Sardar Ram Singh, slowly but not quietly, felt his way for establishing his authority in the territory in the vicinity of Phul and Bhadaur which were situated at a distance of ten miles from each other. Then, he managed through his cousin, Chain Singh, to secure the grant of the chaudhariyat of the jungle ilaqa from the faujdar of Sirhind.33 It seems that the appointment was secured about 1710, during the time of uncertainty and disorder which was caused by Banda Singh Bahadur and when a policy of pacifying local men was followed.

Chain Singh, who presumably enjoyed the favour of the faujdar of Sirhind, became the joint- collector of revenue with Ram Singh. Chain Singh was a man of haughty and interfering nature. His demands grew from day to day till at last his partnership with Ram Singh became impossible. No persuasion could dissuade Chain Singh from his objectionable behaviour. Ram Singh, in consultation with Tilok Singh, took the drastic step of getting Chain Singh liquidated and for the rest of his life he remained the sole collector of revenue of the ilaqa. The faujdar of Sirhind took no serious notice of the murder of Chain Singh but the sons of the latter, Biru and Uggar Sain, carried out the vendetta by killing Ram Singh at Malerkotla in 1714.34 According to an account he was fifty years of age when he met with his violent end.35

Ram Singh was married to Sabi (Sahib Kaur) who was the daughter of Nanu Singh Bhutta of village Ghunas. By her, he had six sons—Duna, Sabha, Ala, Bakhta, Budha and Ladha, of whom the last two died young36 and childless. Sardar Duna became the ancestor of Sardars of Kot Duna and Bhadaur. The other sons, excepting Ala Singh who founded the Patiala house, could not get any prominence.

Sardar Ala Singh (1695-1765)

Ala Singh was running his twentieth year when his father was murdered in 1714.37 The inscription regarding his birth on his samadh at Patiala, noting the date as 1695, corroborates it. According to Gian Singh, he was born in 1691,38 but 1695, seems more plausible.

The active career of Ala Singh roughly covered half a century. Besides his capacity to lead and ability to take advantage of the situation, he had the privilege of being served by the Malwa Jats, who were reputed for their martial qualities. The career of Ala Singh was mostly concerned with or confined to the sarkar of Sirhind. Every sarkar was administered by a faujdar. The faujdar of Sirhind was helped by functionaries stationed at places like Sunam and Samana. The officials called estate- holders or jagirdars or farmers of revenue were in touch with the people and dominated the places where they held lands. It was with these local men of influence that Ala Singh had much to do for the first thirty years of his career.

Isa Khan Munj held land on both sides of the Satluj. He was a terror to the tract from Tihara to Dhuri. In 1718, he was killed along with his father, fighting against the imperial army. The Afghans of Kotla were at this time under Jamal Khan who raised the chiefship to prominence. In Raikot and Jagraon, Rai Kalha III was the contemporary of Ala Singh. The area around Barnala was held by Saundha Khan Rajput. The country side of Samana and Dhodian comprised the jagir of Farid Khan of Kakra, and the ilaqa of Sunam was a part of the jagir of Amir Khan. Patiala and the neighbouring villages formed the jurisdiction of the taaluqadar, Muhammad Saleh Khokhar, with his headquarters at Sanaur, four miles from Patiala. Saifabad (Bahadurgarh), was in the hands of the descendants of Saif Khan. Bathinda was held by Sardar Jodha.39

Ala Singh was barely out of his teens when his father was done to death. He and his brother, Sabha Singh, avenged the blood of their father by murdering Kamala and Biru—sons of Chain Singh, along with eighteen of their followers.40 Ala Singh also sacked Sema, the village of Chain Singh. Uggar Sain could not recover his paternal property till about 1746, when Ali Muhammad Khan, faujdar of Sirhind, gave him permission to reoccupy and populate the village.41

Ala Singh took possession of Barnala in 1722-23. Leaving his elder brother, Duna Singh, in possession of Bhadaur, Ala Singh shifted to Barnala.42 It marks the real beginning of his career and Barnala remained his headquarters for the next forty years. According to Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, there is a story about Ala Singh’s leaving Bhadaur. One day, Ala Singh visited the holy faqir, Baba Charan Das, who advised him to leave Bhadaur and move to the east and populate a theh which would result in his progress and prosperity. Bir Bhan, zamindar and muqadam of village Sanghera, joined Ala Singh in rebuilding Barnala, which had fallen into ruins.43

At Barnala, one of Ala Singh’s most powerful and troublesome neighbours was Saundha Khan, a Muhammadan of Rajput origin, who owned the village of Nima, whose occupation was robbery rather than husbandry. He, besides three hundred horseman of his own, could count on the assistance of Rai Kalha, the chief of Kot, his relation. Saundha Khan died in 1731, and his adopted son, Nigahi Khan, disgusted at being refused a share with the two sons of the deceased, took service with Ala Singh and persuaded his son, Sardul Singh, to join him in an attack upon the village of Nima, which they captured and destroyed.44

Hearing of the complete effacement of Saundha Khan’s power, Rai Kalha issued an appeal to the Muhammadan chiefs for assistance against Ala Singh. Fateh Khan of Talwandi, Dalel Khan of Halwara, Qutab-ud-Din Khan of Malsian and Jamal Khan of Malerkotla responded to the call. They placed their soldiers, numbering 40,000, under the command of Nawab Asad Ali Khan, faujdar of Jalandhar Doab.45 Ala Singh obtained help from Majha and Malwa Sikhs to fight a combination of the Muhammadan chiefs. Kapur Singh, Diwan Barbara Singh and Deep Singh Shahid came from Majha with a force of 15,000 men. Mehrajkian Sardars, Shahzada Singh and Kehar Singh and Lakhna Doggar from Malwa joined with their contingents. Asad Ali was killed and the other Muhammadan chiefs took to flight. This victory of Ala Singh against heavy odds marked a turning point in his career.46 Ala Singh was baptised to Sikhism by Sardar Kapur Singh Faizullapuria.47

According to the Tazkirah, after building Barnala, Ala Singh decided to build Longowal. He pitched a mohri (a trunk of wood) at a place where he proposed to lay out the village of Longowal. Some person pulled out the mohri and threw it into a well. Ala Singh sought the advice of Bhai Mul Chand, a famous faqir, as to the desirability of going ahead with the village. Bhai Mul Chand favoured the project and it was built and populated in due course of time. He also founded Dirbah. He founded more villages in the deserted jungle areas and also occupied many villages from the parganas of Sunam and Samana.48

In 1745, Ali Muhammad Khan Rohilla was appointed faujdar of Sirhind. On assuming charge he summoned the prominent taaluqadars to Sirhind. Ala Singh was among those who obeyed the summons. Rai Kalha of Kot did not attend. An army was sent against him under Hafiz Rahmat and Ala Singh accompanied the expedition with his troops. The Rai’s power was destroyed. He fled with his family and took shelter in Pakpattan. Raikot and Jagraon were occupied. With the victorious army Ala Singh also returned to Sirhind where he found himself landed in prison. He was, then, shifted to Sunam where he was kept in close confinement. Ala Singh’s quick strides in conquering more and more areas had resulted in his imprisonment. Ala Singh escaped from the prison in the guise of his faithful servant, Karam Singh. He hastened to Longowal and thence to Barnala.49

Both Samana and Sunam were the important parganas and these two towns ranked equal, in importance, to Sirhind. Ala Singh was slowly feeling his way towards the establishment of his overlordship over these parganas. In 1749, he erected a fort it Dhodian (which came to be called Bhawanigarh) which fell within the jurisdiction of Farid Khan of Kakra and rakhi was also levied on seventeen other villages belonging to the same landlord. This was naturally resented by him. Accompanied by some 70 horsemen, Farid Khan was proceeding to Samana to arrange aid against Ala Singh when he was seen and attacked by the latter’s men. Farid Khan, along with 20 men, was killed in the fray- His movable property was given to his sons and his landed estate passed to Ala Singh who occupied a quarter of the pargana of Samana.50 The construction of the fort of Bhawanigarh eclipsed the importance of Longowal and Ala Singh made it his place of frequent residence.

In the fifties, Ala Singh was well on his way to rulership. In this decade extensive territories, which in Mughal times were included in the pargana of Sunam, Samana, Banur and Ghurram, were brought within his sway. He even went beyond the boundary of the sarkar of Sirhind and occupied a portion of northern Hisar. Sanaur, once a village, was better known, being the seat of a taaluqadar, a Sherwani Afghan, whose name was Muhammad Saleh Khokhar. The Khokhar chief voluntarily offered 84 villages called chaurasi including the site of modern Patiala which was then a small village, to Ala Singh, probably by way of propitiating a man who was occupying villages far and near and might any day march on his territory. Ala Singh despatched Gurbakhsh Singh Kaleka with a body of 1000 horsemen to take formal possession of the ceded villages including Sanaur.51 This happened in 1753.

At the suggestion of Sukhdas Singh Kaleka and Gurbakhsh Singh, Patiala was selected for the construction of a building known as deohri, for the occasional residence of Sardar Ala Singh, and for the erection of a mud fort, for its defence. This fort, traditionally known as Sodhian ki Garhi or Gher Sodhian, was situated to the east of the present fort called Qila-i-Mubarak,52 which began to be constructed in 1763 with the custom dues collected from Sirhind.

The Patiala garhi was attacked by the chief of Saifabad. Ala Singh issued out of the garhi and defeated the invaders.53

Jodha attacked Bathinda in 1753. Bugga Singh, nephew of Ala Singh and son of Duna Singh, was sent to Bathinda against Jodha’s unsocial behaviour. Bugga Singh could not do much. Ala Singh ordered a force of three to four thousand strong to march on Bathinda. Jodha was defeated and his territory was overrun and many of the captured villages, including Bhuchhu and Jhumba, were given to Bhai Gurbakhsh Singh who laid the foundation of the Kaithal family.54

Kanwar Lal Singh and his father, Ala Singh, then, overran Sohana, Jamalpur, Dharsul and Shikarpur, belonging to Muhammad Amin Khan and Muhammad Hasan Khan Bhattis. These chiefs solicited the help of the imperial governor of Hisar, who sent a detachment but in the engagement which followed at Khodal, near Akalgarh, the Bhattis were defeated. On their second venture also, after three days’ skirmishing Ala Singh made a night attack on the Bhatti camp which was completely successful and Muhammad Amin Khan escaped to Hisar. He, then, to secure cordial assistance from Nawab Nazeer Khan, gave him his daughter in marriage. The Sikhs and the Bhattis supported by the imperial forces met at Dharsul. Fighting continued for eight days. Nawab Naseer Khan, governor of Hisar, was killed and the imperial forces, disheartened by the loss of their leader, left the field and the Bhattis were, then, at once attacked by Ala Singh with all his troops and put to flight with a heavy loss. This engagement, which did much to consolidate Ala Singh’s power and increase his reputation, took place in 1757.55

In the end of 1758, the towns of Sunam and Samana also passed into the possession of Ala Singh.

Since the capture of Barnala and Sanghera Ala Singh had been almost in continual conflict with the chiefs of Malerkotla and Raikot. Jamal Khan and Bhikhan, the Nawabs of Malerkotla were contemporaries of Ala Singh.

In 1760-61, Ala Singh captured Sherpur and Bhasaur which were the possessions of Nawab of Malerkotla. Nawab Bhikhan Khan collected his forces and advanced towards Lalaucchi (15 kos west of Patiala) where the Patiala forces were camping. Kanwar Himmat Singh, grandson of Ala Singh, was encamped at the village of Sadarpur. The clash between the contending forces took place near Kakra. The Afghan chief, Bhikhan Khan was killed in the course of fighting and the Patiala forces returned victorious.56

Ala Singh and the Durranis

From 1747 to 1766, Ahmad Shah Abdali came to India for a number of times. During his first invasion a decisive battle was fought at Manupur, 16 kms north-west of Sirhind, on March 11, 1748. The Wazir of Delhi was killed by a shell but due to the dauntless and fierce attack of the dead Wazir’s son, Muin-ul-Mulk, the Afgan forces beat a retreat. This was Ahmad Shah Abdali’s first appearance in the tract where Ala Singh was struggling to carve out a principality for himself. Daya Lal, Ala Singh’s agent at Delhi, suggested that it was the time when the Phulkian chief, by helping the imperial forces, could win the support of the Mughal government. Ala Singh reached Manupur and participated in the foraging attacks on the Afghan invaders.57 This was the first occasion when Ala Singh came in direct touch with the Imperial government.

When, after the fourth invasion of India by Ahmad Shah Abdali in 1755-57, his son, Timur Shah, was returning to his country, with heavy booty from Delhi, Ala Singh in concert with other Sikh Sardars barred Timur’s path at Sanaur and relieved him of half of his precious burden.58

Ahmad Shah Durrani appointed Abdus Samad Mohammadzai as the governor of Sirhind in April 1757. Ala Singh’s possessions were mostly situated within the jurisdiction of Sirhind. Abdus Samad wanted to punish Ala Singh for his having intercepted the looted treasures of Timur Shah. The Phulkian chief, knowing the intentions of Abdus Samad, retired to Dhodian where there was a much stronger fort. Abdus Samad followed Ala Singh to Dhodian and besieged him there. The Pathan governor was defeated. Abdus Samad Khan reached. Sirhind on January 12, 1758, and it was attacked and captured on March 21, 1758, by the combined forces of the Marathas, Ala Singh, Adeena Beg and his other Sikh allies. The Marathas appointed Sadiq Beg as the new governor of Sirhind.59 Before the occupation of Sirhind Ala Singh, who was pro-Maratha and anti-Abdali, was requested to send help and to meet Sadiq Beg Khan at Sanaur and Malhar Rao on his march to Sirhind. The help was given in the shape of two thousand soldiers who participated in the attack on Sirhind. But the meeting could not take place as Ala Singh did not agree to go to the Maratha camp.

During the third battle of Panipat, fought between the Marathas and the Durranis, in January 1761, Ala Singh sent provisions for the Maratha army and fodder for their horses. The Afghans partially succeeded in preventing the same from reaching the Marathas. Ahmad Shah Durrani’s allies like the Nawab of Malerkotla and Rai of Kot duly informed him about the convoys of grains which were being supplied by Ala Singh to the Marathas. We notice that before the battle of Panipat Ala Singh had actively helped the foes of Ahmad Shah Abdali and after the disaster many Marathas were given ready shelter in his territory.60

According to the Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, Ahmad Shah sent i detachment for an attack on Barnala. Ala Singh was, then, residing at Munak and the capital was in the charge of his wife, Mai Fato, and her grandson, Kanwar Amar Singh. The Mai, realising the impossibility of successfully opposing the Afghan army, despatched four trusted emissaries: Bhola Singh, Kashmiri Mai, Kanaihya Mai and Bairam Dhillon, to meet Shah Vali Khan, the Wazir of Ahmad Shah Durrani, to sue for peace. She vacated Barnala, along with her grandson, and went to Munak to join her husband. Barnala was given over to plunder but the above mentioned emissaries purchased the withdrawal of Afghans by payment of four lakh rupees as nazarana. Influence appears to have been brought to bear upon Wazir Shah Vali Khan who, from now always, pleaded with the Shah for the ruler of Patiala. In consequence, Ala Singh was warmly received by Ahmad Shah, confirmed in his possessions and awarded a robe of honour and the title of Raja, with tabl-o-alam, as insignia of royalty.61 The faujdar of Sirhind was ordered to regard Ala Singh’s possessions separate from the territory under his jurisdiction. Ala Singh’s jurisdiction was acknowledged to extend over 726 villages. The names of the parganas and the number of villages in each were as under: Sunam 224 villages, Samana 226, Haveli Sirhind 52, Sanaur 89, Karyat Rai Semu 4, Chhat 8, Banur 36, Massingan 17, Ghurram 6 and Mansurpur 23.62  In 1723, he possessed only 30 villages.

Ala Singh’s status as territorial magnate was recognised and his position stabilised by the all- powerful man of the time— Ahmad Shah Abdali. The Sikhs felt enraged at the conduct of Ala Singh in receiving favours from Ahmad Shah Abdali. An attack on his territory was contemplated by the Sikhs, but they were restrained from implementing their designs by the friendly intervention of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia. Ala Singh justified his submission on the ground of expediency and assured his coreligionists that his views were in accordance with theirs and in proof thereof got his grandson, Amar Singh, formally baptised to Sikhism by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia and in atonement of his conduct paid a fine of one lakh rupees.63

On the invitation of Aqil Das of Jandiala the Dorrani chief again came to the Punjab in the beginning of 1762, and there was a bloody carnage or wada ghallughara near Malerkotla, killing, at a very modest calculation, ten thousand Sikhs. He marched upon Barnala also. The fort was taken and the place was set on fire.

In January 1764, Zain Khan, the governor of Sirhind, was killed by the Sikhs. They captured Sirhind and handed over the same to Ala Singh.”64 Ala Singh shifted to Patiala in February 1764.

Qazi Nur Muhammad, who accompanied Ahmad Shah Abdali’s expedition of 1764-65, writes of Ala Singh:

“He is a hakim (ruler), a zabit (governor) and an amin (commissioner). Nobody else is so resourceful in the countries of the Punjab, Lahore and Sirhind as he is. He serves the Shah in his absence as well as in his presence and carries out his orders with wisdom and dignity.”65 The Shah gave recognition to Ala Singh’s possession of the territory of Sirhind, subject to the payment of an annual tribute of 3 ½ lakh rupees.66

From a small beginning the territorial acquisition of Ala Singh underwent, through a long period of fifty years, a steady process of expansion which continued almost to the end of his life. After a very eventful career Ala Singh died of fever, at Patiala, on August 22, 1765, at the age of seventy.67

There was a considerable decline in agriculture in the cis-Satluj areas during the first half of the eighteenth century. It was due to two major factors: political instability and frequent famines. The Sikh movement under the Dal Khalsa, suppression of powerful zamindars like Isa Khan and continued inefficient and tactless faujdars of Sirhind as Ali Muhammad Rohilla, Sadiq Beg, Abdus Samad Khan Muhammadzai and Zain Khan and various political upheavals created insecurity among the peasants.

The  famines and their devastations have been vividly described in Sakhian Bhai Mool Chand, a Punjabi manuscript of 1793. There were famines in 1694, 1713 and 1722. During these famines Bhattis carried on depredations by organising bands. The villages bad already been ruined by famines. The loot and plunder compelled the peasants to seek asylum elsewhere. It was at this critical stage of economic crisis that Ala Singh started his career by populating the ruined villages and founding new ones, to help the famine-stricken peasantry, to increase his area of jurisdiction and build strategic points for further expansion.  The land thus colonized was to belong to the founder of the village. There is a definite evidence from the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries that persons who brought new areas under cultivation were recognised as malik or proprietors. The Mughal Emperors freely bestowed zamindari rights on those who would bring forest land or waste land under cultivation. In pursuance of the new policy Ala Singh founded a large number of villages including Longowal, Chhajli, Dirbah, Sheron, Hadiana and Patiala. This measure of colonization provided a number of benefits to Ala Singh. The inhabitants of the new villages and towns brought reclamation of land around these settlements.

This resulted in enabling Ala Singh to spare food grains for the contingents of his political allies, when on march, and also for the Dal Khalsa, whenever they visited the cis-Satluj areas.

In giving lands in his new villages Ala Singh made no discrimination against the Muslims. His secular and sympathetic outlook encouraged the Muslim zamindars outside his control to seek his overlordship.

Ala Singh’s Character

Ala Singh was a virtuous man with a high sense of moral values. When staying at Longowal, one day, he went upstairs and happened to see a carpenter’s daughter naked while taking her bath on the roof of her house. He took it as sinful and atoned for it by telling her father to adopt her as his own daughter. He himself met all the expenses of her marriage.68 Once an old Brahman woman appealed to a saintly person, Bhai Mool Chand, for financial assistance for the marriage of her daughter. The saintly Bhai, turning to the people assembled before him, told them that whosoever helped the old woman would get, with the grace of God, the same number of villages as the rupees given to her. Ala Singh brought all the rupees available with him at home to give to the woman. When asked by the Bhai as to the amount of the rupees he told that he did not count. The holy Bhai told him that he would also receive countless villages.69 He continuously ran langars for the poor and the needy. His wife, Fato, an equally virtuous lady, also looked after langar.70 He was very hospitable and magnanimous. He wore a simple dress. He was a very tolerant and kind-hearted man. As the tradition goes, once, when his wife, Fato, was serving in the mess she offered hot ghee to a man partaking food from the langar. The man told her as to what should he do with the hot ghee. She told him to pour it on her head, which he did. When the matter was reported to Ala Singh he pacified her by saying that she was lucky to have ghee poured on her head by one of their own men in place of hot oil at the hands of the Muslims.71 This speaks for Ala Singh’s tolerant disposition.

In diplomacy, Ala Singh was par excellence. He plundered Ahmad Shah Durrani’s foraging parties in 1748, robbed his son, Timur Shah, in 1757, and annoyed the Durrani in 1760, by supplying grains to the Marathas. In 1764, he joined the Dal Khalsa in attacking Sirhind and killing its governor, Zain Khan. Despite all this, he obtained the title of Raja and governorship of Sirhind from the Durrani. Ala Singh had pleased the Mughal Emperor, the Durrani invader and the Dal Khalsa. In the words of Hari Ram Gupta

“Ala Singh may rightly be called Bismarck of the Sikhs. He had three balls in his hands, and by throwing them simultaneously into the air, he always caught them, never allowing any one to fall.”72

Ala Singh had married only one wife, Fatto, who, bore three sons: Sardul Singh, Bhuma Singh and Lal Singh, all of whom died in the life time of their father, and had a daughter, Bibi Pardhan Kaur, who was born in 1718. She was married to Sham Singh Randhawa of village Ram Das in the Amritsar district. She became a widow, a short time after her marriage. She came back to live under the affectionate care of her father. She passed her life at Barnala and spent most of her income from a jagir of seventeen villages on charities. She died in 1789. Sardul Singh, the eldest son, was born on June 16, 1715. He married as his first wife, the daughter of Chaudhary Suraj Mal, Sardar of Bhikhi, who became the mother of Kanwar Amar Singh. His second wife was the widow of his first cousin, Jodh Singh, whom he married according to kerewa, or chadar pauna. Sardul Singh died in 1753.73

Bhuma Singh, the second son, born on August 21, 1721, left one daughter, Bibi Rajinder Kaur. The youngest son, Lal Singh, born in 1723, died in 1757. He was childless.74

When Ala Singh died there were two claimants to the chiefship, Himmat Singh and Amar Singh, the sons of Sardul Singh. Of these Himmat, Singh was older by several years. He was born to the widow of Jodh Singh. Amar Singh, the second son of Sardul Singh, was born on June 7, 1748, and was consequently seventeen years old when his grandfather died.75

Maharaja Amar Singh (1765-1781)

When Ala Singh died at Patiala Mai Fato and Kanwar Amar Singh were at Barnala. Accompanied by Amar Singh, she came post-haste to Patiala and installed Amar Singh on the gaddi as the successor of his grandfather. The Sardars who presented themselves on the occasion included Gurbakhsh Singh Kaleka, Hamir Singh Kaleka, Sukhdas Kaleka, Desu Singh Jaid, Phula Singh, Qandhari Mal, Gulab Rai, Bakhshi Lakhna Doggar, Hari Singh Guhar, Kanha Mal, Gurdas Singh Sekhon, Mehar Singh Gurusaria, Nanu Singh Grewal and Surat Singh Sameka. They swore allegiance to the new Patiala ruler—Amar Singh.76

Rebellion of Himmat Singh

At the lime of Ala Singh’s death Himmat Singh was at Hadiaya. When he reached Patiala Amar Singh had already been installed as the Raja. He is said to have taken possession of a great part of the town of Patiala and the neighbouring areas. Amar Singh, with the help of the rulers of Jind, Nabha and Kaithal, compelled Himmat Singh to retire From Patiala.77 He came back to Hadiaya and planned war against his brother, Amar Singh. He captured the fort of Dhodian (Bhawanigarh).78 Amar Singh, in order to avoid the escalation of war, sent emissaries to Himmat Singh to negotiate a settlement. He expressed his willingness to grant half the territory to Himmat Singh and the other half, including Patiala, was to be retained by him. The offer was declined by Himmat Singh. An attempt at pacification was made by Bibi Rajinder Kaur, cousin of Amar Singh, by going on hunger strike at Bhawanigarh for seven days. Himmat Singh released all the men made captive during the occupation of the fort of Bhawanigarh. Amar Singh marched against Himmat Singh and besieged the town of Bhawanigarh The opportune intercession, of Mai Fato brought about the submission of Himmat Singh, who received the town of Bhawanigarh and certain villages as jagir from Amar Singh.79  This took place in April 1767.

Amar Singh captured the town of Payal, near Ludhiana, from the Kotla Afghans, with the help of Jassa Singh Ahluwalia, and after that took Isru which belonged to the same masters-Jassa Singh got one fourth of the revenue of the town. But later, by an arrangement with Amar Singh, the Ahluwalia chief became possessed of the whole of lsru.80

Because of Patiala house’s alignment with the Durrani invader, Ahmad Shah, the Sikhs, particularly of trans-Satluj areas of the Punjab, had turned hostile to the Phulkian chief. More than once, they had been prevented from marching against Patiala.  According to Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, after the accession of Amar Singh, Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia and Baghel Singh visited Patiala in 1766. Perceiving the weak state-defence of Patiala Baghel Singh suggested to the Ahluwalia chief a surprise attack on the place with a view to occupying it. The suggestion was brushed aside by Jassa Singh and they soon left Patiala.81

Ahmad Shah Durrani, during his last invasion of India in 1767, honoured Amar Singh with the title of Raja-i-Rajgan Bahadur. At Kara Bowana, 24 miles south of Ambala, a meeting took place between the Afghan king and Raja Amar Singh, when valuable presents were given to the latter with a flag and a drum, the insignia of an independent ruler. He was also permitted to strike coins in his name and he, in his turn, presented the king with a nazarana of a lakh of rupees.82

After Amar Singh’s row with the ruler of Malerkotla for a short while peace was restored between the two. In 1768, a punitiva expedition was sent against Sardar Jodh Singh who was the chief of Kot Kapura. He was indiscreetly provocative in his conduct and utterances. It is said that he had a horse and a mare (both stolen from Phul) which he named as Ala and Fato. Raja Amar Singh was highly incensed on hearing this intolerable affront to his grandfather and grandmother.83 Jhanda Singh was sent against Jodh Singh with a force. In the course of fighting which lasted only for three hours the Brar chief, Jodh Singh, died and his eldest son, Jit Singh, was also mortally wounded. Raja Amar Singh was very much distressed to hear of the death of the chief whose life he never intended to take.84 The object was to chastise Jodh Singh for his puerile imprudence. Pinjore was captured, by the Patiala chief with the help of Hari Singh of Sialba, about 1770. Garib Das, the chief of Manimajra, also submitted to Patiala. Later, Sailba was also occupied and Gurbakhsh Singh Dhillon was appointed qiladar of the place. The chief of Sialba appealed to some of the Sikh Sardars for help. They got Sialba released from the Patiala forces inflicting heavy human loss on them. Among the slain was Bakhshi Malik Lakhna. Jhanda Singh and Mahan Singh were made captive and Nanu Mal received a wound.85

Then came the turn of Bathinda. The Raja accompanied the army to Bathinda and after an encounter the town was occupied. On being defeated Sukhchain Singh Saboka withdrew to the Fort of Gobindgarh which was close to the town of Bathinda and made a bid to defend it against the Patiala forces which had besieged it.86 Sukhchain Singh, finding himself closely invested, sent a message of surrender on condition that the siege was immediately raised and he was promised safety. Raja Amar Singh agreed to this and taking Kapur Singh, son of Sukhchain Singh, and five others as hostages for the fulfilment of the promise of surrender he returned to Patiala. For four months Sukhchain Singh evaded the evacuation of the fort, and then he approached the ruler of Patiala and informed him that he was ready to hand over the fort if hostages were released. Amar Singh detained Sukhchain Singh and released Kapur Singh who entered the fort of Bathinda and made preparations for defence.87 Sukhchain Singh, unable to bear the rigours of imprisonment, wrote to his son to make over the fort to the Patiala officers. The fort was surrendered to Patiala and, for his maintenance, Sukhchain Singh was given twelve villages.88 The whole affair, from the inception of the siege of Bathinda to the final occupation of the fort, took about two years from the end of 1769 to that of 1771.

Shortly thereafter, the Marathas, under Janko Rao marched in the direction of Patiala in October 1772. Against the advice of Mai Fato, Raja Amar Singh sent off all his treasure and family jewels to Bathinda which, lying amidst sandy wastes, was not likely to be attacked. The Marathas did not come beyond Pihowa (near Thanesar). In the absence of Raja Amar Singh from Patiala, it was attacked by Himmat Singh who was admitted into the fort by Sukhdas Kaleka who was, then, in charge of the fort.89 Amar Singh hurried to Patiala. Finding himself unable to resist, Himmat Singh, on assurance of life and liberty, surrendered and died two years later, in 1774, from excessive drinking at Longowal, and his estates of Bhawanigarh and Dirbah were resumed by Amar Singh.90

About four miles to the north-east of Patiala there was a strong fort which had been built by Nawab Saif Khan and called Saifabad after his own name. Gul Khan, the principal follower of Saif Khan, became its qiiadar after the death of the latter. Raja Amar Singh besieged the fort and battered its walls. Gul Khan surrendered the fort to Amar Singh.91

In 1774, Amar Singh also captured the fort of Begran in the Hisar district from the Bhattis.92 In the year 1777, Raja Amar Singh sent a force under Chaudhary Daya Singh to overrun the districts of Faridkot and Kot Kapura but made no attempt to take formal possession of the same.

In 1778, Raja Amar Singh again decided to attack Manimajra and Sialba. Garib Das purchased peace by paying a huge sum to the Patiala chief. Hari Singh, the ruler of Sialba, called Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, Gurdit Singh and Diwan Singb Ladwa, Karam Singh Shahid of Shahzadpur, Gurbakhsh Singh of Ambala and some smaller chiefs to his help. The forces of Patiala were repulsed.93 A little later, when Hari Singh’s supporters dispersed, Amar Singh decided to avenge his defeat.

He collected his friends and relatives along with their contingents. By making payments to the few supporters of Hari Singh, Amar Singh was able to make Sialba chief to come to Patiala where peace was concluded without bloodshed.94 The territory of Desu Singh, supporter of Hari Singh Sialba, was restored to him.

Nawab Majad-ud-Doulah Abdul Ahad, minister at Delhi, was determined to make an effort to recover the Malwa country from the Sikhs. He departed from Delhi in November 1779, with a big force and was accompanied by Prince Farukhanda Bakht.95 He reached Karnal without meeting any resistance and, there, he was joined by Sardar Baghel Singh Karorsinghia, Sahib Singh Khundawala and Karam Singh Shahid.96 The envoys of Bhai Desu Singh of Kaithal had accompanied the Nawab from Delhi. Desu Singh was reputed to be rich. On a charge of not having paid his arrears of revenue he was seized and an amount of four lakh rupees was demanded from him as a fine. He was able to pay three lakh rupees and for the payment of the balance he sent his son, Lal Singh, as a hostage.97

The Nawab marched on, thinking, that he would not meet with opposition and, at the village of Ghurram, about 25 kms from Patiala, he was met by Diwan Nanu Mal whom the Raja had sent to express his devotion to the Delhi government. In. the meantime Raja Amar Singh had invited Jai Singh and Haqiqat Singh Kanaihyas, Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, Tara Singh Ghaiba, Jodh Singh of Wazirabad, Dal Singh, Lehna Singh and Gujjar Singh Bhangis and many others,98 while at Patiala, the Phulkian chiefs of Jind, Nabha, Bhadaur and Malod had collected all their troops. The Nawab was terrified and he thought of immediate retreat. Baghel Singh told him that the Sikhs would not allow him a safe retreat unless they were given money. Baghel Singh got the greater portion of the three lakhs of rupees which he had extracted from Desu Singh. He gave a part of that amount to the Sikh chiefs,99 who retired to their places and the Nawab retreated to Delhi.

Raja Amar Singh died on Februarys, 1781, of dropsy brought on by excessive drinking,100 He lived only up to thirty four years of age.

In a short span of life, Amar Singh made Patiala the most powerful state between the Jamuna and the Satluj. He had a quick intelligence, firm determination and a strong arm, and his success was well-deserved.

Maharaja Sahib Singh (1781-1813)

The new ruler of Patiala, Raja Sahib Singh, who was born on August 18, 1773,101 was a young boy of a little more than Seven at the time of his accession to the throne in 1781.102 Through the influence of Rani Hukman, the grandmother of the young Raja, Diwan Nanu Mal was appointed Prime Minister.

Soon after his accession the young chief had to face rebellions at Bhawanigarh by its governor Mahan Singh, the brother of Mai Deso, step-mother of Raja Sahib Singh, at Kot Sumer, headed by Rajo, the widow of Bakhsho Singh of Saboka and at Bhikhi by Ala Singh, brother of Raja Amar Singh’s widow. Rani Khem Kaur. All these rebellions were suppressed by Nanu Mal by his timely and adequate action.103

Rani Hukman’s death gave a set-back to the position of Diwan Nanu Mal. The Diwan’s enemies, Rani Khem Kaur, Soman Lal Dhali, Bibi Pardhan Kaur, grand-aunt of Raja Sahib Singh, and some others got him arrested as he was lying at Anandpur where he was wounded by Khurram Beg, and sent him a prisoner to Patiala. Rani Rajinder Kaur of Phagwara, a first cousin sister of Raja Amar Singh, came to Patiala and got Nanu Mal released and reinstated in his post as Prime Minister.104

Nanu Mal, finding that he could not depend upon the support of the Patiala nobles, to restore order, opened negotiations with Dhara Rao, a Maratha leader, who had been moving about near Delhi. Some Sikh chiefs as Baghel Singh, Diwan Singh Ladwa, Bhanga Singh and Mehtab Singh of Thanesar had joined Dhara Rao. Baghel Singh arranged matters with the Marathas who consented to assist Nanu Mal for a consideration of two lakh rupees against those who had revolted against the Patiala state. Dhara Rao came to Karnal and was joined by Nanu Mal, Rani Rajinder Kaur and Raja Gajpat Singh of Jind. The opponents and rebels of the state got frightened. The Patiala allies attacked Banur. It was under Singhpurias who had earlier been paying half share of the revenue to Patiala as Raja Amar Singh had helped them to conquer it. Khushal Singh, the Singhpuria chief, stopped the payment of Patiala share. Nanu Mal, by forced contributions from the chiefs and the zamindars of Banur and the adjoining areas, managed to pay the Marathas two lakh rupees as agreed. The Marathas returned to Karnal.105

In 1787, Raja Sahib Singh was married to Rattan Kaur, daughter of Sardar Ganda Singh Bhangi.106

In 1788, another Maratha leader, Amba Rao, assisted by Ghulam Qadir Khan, son of Zabita Khan Rohilla, invaded the territory of Patiala but could not achieve much as the Rohilla chief had retired towards Delhi probably after a quarrel with the Maratha invader.107

When Raja Sahib Singh was fourteen years of age, on the instigation of some of his men, he began to hate Nanu Mal bitterly.

The Marathas again marched northwards, under the command of Rane Khan Dadaji and Ali Bahadur. Patiala was their target. Nanu Mal advised the ladies at the palace to leave Patiala for Munak or Bathinda. Rani Rajinder Kaur did not agree.108 She asked Diwan Nanu Mal to negotiate with the invaders and if necessary to buy them off from his own pocket. The Diwan had no money to pay. The Maratha army appeared before Patiala and encamped at Sular, less than three kms from the town. Nanu Mal was not able to pay sufficient amount to the Marathas. They besieged the fort of Saifabad known as Bahadurgarh. The Marathas demanded nazarana which Rani Rajinder Kaur was not willing to pay. She sent her forces against them to Saifabad. After occasional skirmishes between the Marathas and the Patiala forces for a month and a half the Marathas retired to Delhi.109

When Nanu Mal was accompanying the Marathas out of the Patiala state, Sahib Singh confiscated his property. When ‘Nanu Mal was returning from Karnal, he heard about the Raja’s action against him and took refuge with Karam Singh of Shahabad.110

Rajinder Kaur, who had accompanied the Marathas to Mathura to settle things with Scindia himself, came back to find Raja Sahib Singh turned against her due to the instigation of the Raja’s supporters that her growing power was a danger to his safety and dignity.111 Despite her serious attempts to see Sahib Singh he persistently avoided her. She took it as an insult and took to bed and died in Patiala after a short illness, in 1791.112 “Rani Rajinder (Kaur) was one of the most remarkable women of her age. She possessed all the virtues which men pretend are their own—courage, perseverance, and sagacity—without any mixture of the weakness which men attribute to women.”113

Nanu Mal, losing all hope to reestablish his position, died at Malerkotia in 1792. Sahib Singh called his sister Sahib Kaur, to Patiala. She was married to Jaimal Singh Kanaihya of Fatehgarh near Dinanagar in Gurdaspur district, and proclaimed her as his Prime Minister,114 at the age of 18. She managed the affairs both in office and in the battle-field most successfully. As an administrator, general and diplomat she was in no way less than her aunt, Rani Rajinder Kaur.

When she was at Patiala, her husband, Jaimal Singh, was imprisoned by his cousin, Fateh Singh. At the head of a strong contingent, she hurried to Fatehgarh and after a vehement assault she got her husband released and restored to him the charge of Fatehgarh.

In 1794, a large Maratha force under Anta Rao and Lachhman Rao, crossed the Jamuna and marched towards Patiala. Sahib Kaur, at the head of 7000 men, marched to meet the Marathas near Muradpur, leaving her brother. Raja Sahib Singh, in his zanana (harem) at Patiala. Even in the face of heavy odds she did not lose heart and inspired her soldiers to victory against the Marathas who were much larger in number and superior in equipment. The invaders retired towards Karnal.115 Sahib Kaur’s role was indeed noble and exemplary. In character, in statesmanship and in bravery she occupied a very prominent place.

In due course of time, Sahib Singh started showing coldness towards Sahib Kaur. She was charged of having kept the elephant given by the Raja of Nahan in return for the services rendered by her in restoring order in the state. It was also alleged that she had built, in 1795, a fort near Sunam, in her jagir, without her brother’s permission.

Sahib Kaur left Patiala in disgust and went to Bharian, where her new fort stood. The Raja wanted her to go to her husband at Fatehgarh but she was not prepared to submit. Sahib Singh led his forces against her but some courtiers made him return telling him as to how bad it would look to attack his sister.116 During the period of her illness Sahib Kaur is said to have come to Patiala of her own in 1799, and died there a few days later,117 at the young age of 26.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh visited Patiala in July 1806, to mediate between Sahib Singh and Jaswant Singh of Nabha, in a dispute over a village, named Doladi. Ranjit Singh visited Patiala again next year, that is, in 1807, on the invitation of Sahib Singh to resolve the dispute between the Raja of Patiala and his Rani Aus Kaur.118 On both the occasions. Sahib Singh gave a befitting reception to Ranjit Singh.

With the Treaty of Amritsar (25 April, 1809), concluded between Ranjit Singh and the East India Company, the cis-Satluj territories, including Sahib Singh’s state of Patiala, passed under the protection of the East India Company. Patiala came under the advice of a British Resident.

Sahib Singh’s state included the parganas of Bathinda, Hudiaya, Barnala, Sherpur, Sunam, Mansurpur, Dhodhian, Munak, Dirbah, Samana, Sanaur, Patiala, Ghanaur, Rajgarh, Murdanpur, Lalru, Rohru, Banur, Chhat, Sirhind, Payal, Amargarh, Lasoi and Ghurram.119

Raja Sahib Singh suddenly fell ill and died on the 26th of March 1813.120 In the words of Albel Singh who was one of the favourite courtiers of Sahib Singh, “whether the Raja is an avtar or what he is; but though, at times, he is a fool and at others a madman, he yet sometimes possesses uncommon quickness, and whatever he determines on himself he pursues with uncommon obstinacy; and he often acts himself when he is supposed to be governed by others, and when, in fact, we dare not oppose him, lest he should suppose us inimical and rob us of our heads. The admitted loss or gain of lakhs or the ruin or prosperity of his country, are of no consideration in competition with his will or humour.”121 His contemporary writers held him subject to ‘habitual derangement of intellect.”

Maharaja Karam Singh (1813-1845)

Karam Singh was born on October 12, 1797, and ascended the gaadi of Patiala on June 30, 1813, at the age of fifteen.122

During the fight between the Gurkhas under Amar Singh Thapa and the East India Company in 1814, the Patiala forces helped the British.

Rani Aus Kaur, the mother of the new Raja, had been looking after the administration of the state for some time.123 She had herself increased the jagir of Rs. 50,000, which had been granted in 1807, for her maintenance, and that of her son to two lakhs of rupees. Finding her son, Karam Singh, showing displeasure with her, Aus Kaur, moved to Sanaur and shifted her toshakhana to that place. Raja Karam Singh complained to the Political Agent of the East India Company to ask his mother to surrender the surplus estate and the valuable effects of the toshakhana. She decided to leave Patiala but she was persuaded not to go, and she consented to have good relations with her son. Here ended the political career of Rani Aus Kaur in 1823.124

Soon thereafter, Raja Karam Singh was confronted with the extravagant claims and pretensions of his half-brother, Kanwar Ajit Singh. The Kanwar went to reside at Delhi. In 1823, he adopted the title of ‘Maharaja Rajgan Maharaja Ajit Singh Mohinder Bahadur.’ He had no right to adopt any title. Raja Karam Singh was anxious to make friends with him. Ajit Singh desired the territory to be divided and a great portion of the revenue alienated for his benefits. Ultimately, he agreed to accept Rs. 50,000, a year, and later came back to Patiala.125

The old dispute between Patiala and Nabha over the village of Doladi, which had been settled by Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1807, was again revived in 1827. Nabha was accusing the Doladi villagers of encroaching on the disputed land, and Patiala was retorting. Captain Murray fixed the boundary-line which pleased neither of the parties. It was slightly in favour of Patiala. Nabha appealed against it but Captain Murray’s decision was confirmed by the special commissioners appointed to review Murray’s decision.126

With the coming of Patiala under the protection of the East India Company, with effect from 1809, the ruler of the state became subservient to the will of the British. Every major or minor matter relating to the state was referred to the Resident or the British government. Hence it ceased to exist as an independent state.

Raja Karam Singh died on December 23, 1845,127 the day after the battle of Ferozshahar, at the age of forty seven. According to James Skinner, during Raja Karam Singh’s time, the annual revenue of the state amounted to about 24 lakhs of rupees and the strength of his army, comprising cavalry and infantry, was about 5000.128 He was succeeded by his son, Narinder Singh.

Maharaja Narinder Singh (1845-1862)

Narinder Singh was born on November 26, 1824, and succeeded to his father on January 18, 1846.129 He was, then, twenty three years of age. In the war between the Lahore Durbar and the British government he sided with the British and received a sanad from the Governor-General in September 1847, in recognition of his services to them. Narinder Singh bound himself to the suppression of sati, infanticide and dealings in slaves within his territories. He made the greatest contribution to the development of Patiala town. The Motibagh palace, designed on the pattern of Shalamar of Lahore with terraces, fountains, canals and the Sheesh Mahal, was built by him in 1847, at a cost of five lakhs of rupees. The Motibagh Gurdwara built on a spot sacred to the memory of the ninth Guru, Tegh Bahadur, was also built by this ruler at the initial cost of one lakh of rupees with an endowment of another one lakh and a quarter. The other buildings which came up during his reign were the famous Nirmala Centre (Dharam Dhuja) and the samadh of Baba Ala Singh. The ten gates of the city and the ramparts were also built by this ruler.

In 1857-58, the Raja of Patiala stood boldly on the Side of the British and showed conspicuous loyalty to them. The king of Delhi sent him a letter seeking his aid against the British government and promising rewards, but the Maharaja forwarded the letter, in original, to the British authorities. Narinder Singh was given the following title in 1858, by the English: “Farzand-i-Khas, Doulat-i-Englishia, Manzur-i-Amir-ul-Zaman; Omerah, Maharaja Dhiraj, Rajeshar Sri Maharaj-i-Rajgan Narinder Singh Mahendar Bahadur.”130 He died of fever on November 13, 862,131 in the thirty ninth year of his age and the seventeenth ear of his reign.

Maharaja Mahendar Singh (1862-1876)

Mahendar Singh, who was born on September 16, 1852, succeeded his father Narinder Singh, on January 29, 1863, at the age of only a little above ten and the affairs of state were entrusted to a Council of Regency.132 On February 26, 1870, the Council of Regency was dissolved and Mahendar Singh, having completed his eighteenth year, was invested with full administrative powers.133 His education was conducted by Ram Chandra, the great mathematician of Delhi. In May 1870, he was created a Knight of ‘The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India’ by the British.134 He introduced many reforms in his state. In May 1870, he made a donation of Rs. 56,600, to the Punjab University College, Lahore, besides the amount already given.135 He also subscribed liberally to many charitable institutions. On the 15th of October of the same year he formally opened the Satluj bridge at the request of Henry Durand, Lt. Governor of the Punjab. The foundation-stone of Mahendra College, Patiala, was laid during his time on March 30, 1875, by Lord Northbrook, the then Viceroy of India.136 He died in the night intervening April 13 and 14, 1876, in the twenty fourth year of his age, of disease contracted through excessive use of alcoholic liquors.137

Maharaja Rajinder Singh (1876-1900)

Rajinder Singh, who was born on May 25, 1872, succeeded his father at the age of four.138 The installation ceremony was performed on January 6, 1877, by Lord Lytton, the then Viceroy of India.139 The affairs of state were entrusted to a Council of Regency which was dissolved in October 1890,140 and the Maharaja was handed over the administrative powers of the state. Rajinder Singh was an intelligent, educated and a capable ruler. He was very fond of polo and hunting. He was known for his generosity and was keenly interested in the promotion of education. At the opening of Khalsa College, Amritsar, he gave one and a half lakh rupees. He was completely on the side of the British. The Maharaja personally participated in the fighting against the Afridis. In recognition of his services, he was given the title of ‘The Most Exalted Star of India’ by the English.141 The Baradari palace which now houses the Punjab state archives was built by him as his residence. Maharaja Rajinder Singh died on November 8, 1900, at the age of 28.

Maharaja Bhupinder Singh (1900-1938)

Bhupinder Singh, who was born on October 12, 1891,142 succeeded his father in 1900. He was educated at Chiefs College, Lahore. The Council of Regency was constituted to look after the state affairs during the minority of the new ruler. He assumed administrative control in 1909.143 He participated in the coronation celebrations in Delhi in 1911. He helped the British in the First World War (1914-18). He attended the War Conference in London in 1918.144 He was a first rate sportsman, an astute politician and an able administrator. He was the Chancellor of the Chamber of Princes for a long time. In 1928, he represented the Indian States Committee.145 He also represented them at the Round Table Conference in London, in 1930. He was a great patron of art, education and literature and bad a big collection of historical and artistic interests.

From his honorary military rank of Major-General he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-General, in 1931. In 1935, he attended the Silver Jubilee of George V in London. He died on March 23, 1938, due to haemorrhage. He remained loyal to the British. As a devoted Sikh he proclaimed, ‘I am a Sikh and must live and die as a Sikh’.

Almost all branches of state administration received the personal and careful attention of Maharaja Bhupinder Singh. There was, throughout, a lot of activity in the internal and external matters relating to the state. The district boundaries were redrawn and civil administration was thoroughly improved.

He raised Punjabi to the position of court language as early as 1910. He got Gurmukhi type- writer prepared from America.

The Maharaja had a great love for music. Ali Bux, the reputed disciple of Ustad Tanras Khan, was employed as court musician at Patiala. Under Bhupinder Singh’s patronage the Patiala gharana of music attained national prominence.

Maharaja Bhupinder Singh’s manoeuvres against Ripudaman Singh of Nabha went a long way to the latter’s forced abdication. This resulted in bitter criticism of the Patiala ruler by the Sikh leadership, the treatment of Sewa Singh Thikriwala at the handset the Patiala government also proved a strong irritant between the Akali leaders and the Maharaja.

Maharaja Bhupinder Singh was liberal in his religious outlook. The educational institutions such as the Banaras Hindu University, the Aligarh Muslim University and the Khalsa College, Amritsar, received grants worth lakhs of rupees from him.

The Maharaja had a commanding and domineering personality. In a gathering of Indian princes, beside him, other Maharajas looked ‘rustic.’ Such was his regal presence.146 Lord John making observations about him wrote, “From his accession in 1900, to his death in 1938, Maharaja Bhupinder Singh was Patiala, was perhaps the Sikh nation and even for many in Europe, was India.”147 There is no denying the fact that during his life time Maharaja Bhupinder Singh dominated the Indian princely order like a colossus.

Maharaja Yadvindra Singh (1938-1948)

He was born on January 7, 1913.148 He received his education at Aitchison Chiefs College, Lahore. After obtaining his diploma in 1930, he accompanied his father to England on the occasion of the First Round Table Conference. During his wide and extensive tour of European countries he met great men of international fame. He also visited big libraries and noted museums and historical monuments there. On his return to the Punjab he joined Police Training School, at Phillaur, where his deep sense of discipline, unfailing punctuality and hard work and living like a commoner among his fellow trainees won for him the admiration of one and all. On the completion of his training he was appointed Superintendent of Police, Patiala district, in which capacity he often, even at the risk of his life, led his men personally against armed gangs of notorious dacoits. In 1933 he was promoted to the rank of the Inspector-General of Police, of the state.

When a terrible earthquake hit Quetta on May 31, 1935, burying under its debris some forty thousand men, women and children, the heir-apparent of Patiala, Yadvindra Singh, joined hands with the military officers in the rescue work and earned the respect and admiration of all who saw him working with his own hands among the corpseful debris of the ruined city.

After the death of his father he assumed charge of administration of the state on March 23, 1938.149 In the Second World War, he helped the British. He visited many war-fronts to enthuse and inspire the jawans. He became the Chancellor of the Chamber of Princes in 1943. When, after the failure of the Cripps Mission in 1942, the British government sent to India the Cabinet Mission under the leadership of Lord Pethick Lawrence, the Maharaja of Patiala was often the central figure in the negotiations. On August 1, 1947, twenty two rulers of states, with Maharaja Yadvindra Singh leading, announced their decision to accede to the Indian Union and the other rulers followed in quick succession.

After the partition of the country, the Maharaja of Patiala came to the help of the distressed refugees from Pakistan, welcoming them to settle down in Patiala. They were given all possible facilities in their rehabilitation.

When the Punjab states were leagued together Maharaja Yadvindra Singh was appointed the Rajparmukh (governor) on August 20, 1948,150 in which capacity he worked up to 1956, when the Pepsu (Patiala and East Punjab States Union) was merged with the Punjab. Later, he worked as an ambassador to Italy and Holland. He died on June 17, 1974, at Hague in Netherlands due to heart attack.151 His body was flown to India and cremated at Patiala on June 21, in the family crematorium, the shahi samadhan, with full state honours. He left behind him his wife, Maharani Mohinder Kaur, his two daughters and two sons, Sardar Amarinder Singh and Sardar Malvinder Singh. With the death of Maharaja Yadvindra Singh, who was the ninth in the line which began with Ala Singh, came to a close the history of the ruling house of Patiala.

Nabha State

The Nabha and Jind families descended from the same ancestor, Tiloka, the eldest son of Phul. Tiloka had two sons, Gurditta (Gurdit Singh) and Sukhchain (Singh). From the elder, Gurditta, descended the Nabha family and from the younger, Sukhchain, the Jind family.152

On the death of Tiloka in 1729, his elder son, Gurditta, founded the village of Dhanaula and later the town of Sangrur, which remained the headquarters of Nabha state till it was seized by the ruler of Jind.153

Sardar Hamir Singh (1754-1783)

Gurditta died in 1754, and was succeeded by his grandson, Hamir Singh. His only son Surat (or Suratya) Singh, having died two years earlier, leaving two sons, Hamir Singh and Kapur Singh.154 Hamir Singh was a brave and an energetic chief and added very largely to his possessions. According to James Skinner, Hamir Singh was a man of strong determination and valour. He was deeply kind to his subjects and always kept their well-being in mind. He was fond of good weapons. He always, very much, appreciated and honoured the army personnels.155 He founded the town of Nabha in 1755. In 1759, he obtained the possession of Bhadson and in the beginning of 1764, having joined Ala Singh of Patiala and other Sikh Sardars in the battle of Sirhind, when Zain Khan, its Afghan governor, was killed, he obtained Amioh as his share.156 In 1776, he conquered Ron from Rahimdad Khan. Hamir Singh was the first ruler of Nabha who established a mint which may be accepted as a sign of his complete independence.157 He issued coins in the names of the Sikh Gurus and not in the names of the Mughal and Afghan kings.

In 1774, Gajpat Singh of Jind, on a frivolous pretext, took Hamir Singh prisoner and seized the strong town of Sangrur, along with many villages, and it was never restored.158

As the story goes, at the time of Mahan Singh’s marriage with the daughter of Gajpat Singh, the Sukarchakia chief came with a large marriage party of about ten thousand horsemen. Their horses and camels were let loose to graze in the neighbouring pasture (bir) which belonged to the Nabha state. Yaqub Khan, an officer of Hamir Singh of Nabha, attacked the Jind party that looked after the animals. After the departure of the marriage party Gajpat Singh feigned illness and called Hamir Singh and Yaqub Khan to Jind and tortured Yaqub Khan to death and treacherously imprisoned Hamir Singh. He occupied Amioh, Bhadson and Sangrur. On the intercession of Amar Singh of Patiala Gajpat Singh released Hamir Singh and restored his possessions of Amioh and Bhadson and kept Sangrur with him permanently. Hamir Singh died in 1783.

Raja Jaswant Singh (1783-1840)

At the time of Hamir Singh’s death, his son and successor, Jaswant Singh, who was born in 1775, was only eight years of age. Rani Desu, (or Deso), one of late Hamir Singh’s widows, was appointed the new ruler’s regent to carry on the administration, in preference to the mother of Jaswant Singh. Desu had held her own bravely against Jind during the imprisonment of her husband, recovering most of her territory which had been seized by Gajpat Singh, with the aid of troops lent by her son-in-law, Sahib Singh Bhangi of Gujrat.159 She died suddenly in 1790.

Jaswant Singh, later, entered into an alliance with the British. He refused to aid the Maratha Prince Jaswant Rao Holkar who was advancing towards Amritsar, in 1805. In 1809, the Nabha chief put himself under the British protection along with other cis-Satluj or Malwa chiefs. By a sanad signed by the governor-General, he was exempted from the payment of tribute.

In September 1810, Muhammad Akbar Shah, the Emperor of Delhi, conferred on the Raja the title of Brar Bans Sarmour Malvindra Bahadur. The Raja assisted the British government in the Gorkha campaign and in the expedition to Bikaner. Jaswant Singh died on the 22nd of May 1840, in the sixty sixth year of his age.160

According to James Skinner, the boundaries of Jaswant Singh’s state extended to Dharamkot in the west, to Patiala in the east, to Ludhiana in the north and to Samana in the south. His state comprised 225 villages. The annual revenue accruing from his state amounted to two lakh and forty thousand rupees. His army, consisting of foot and horse, totalled about one thousand men.161

Raja Devinder Singh (1840-1846)

Jaswant Singh was succeeded by his son, Devinder Singh, who was born on Bhadon 22, 1879 BK. (September 5, 1822), then in his eighteenth year. The gaddi installation ceremony took place on October 15, 1840.162 He was a weak-minded person and was always surrounded by flatterers who impressed upon his mind false notions of his importance and dignity. He introduced absurd forms of etiquette at his court, requiring his courtiers to prostrate themselves when they paid their compliments or spoke to him.163 During the war between the British and the Lahore government the Nabha chief showed sympathy with the Lahore Durbar and intentionally failed to provide supplies on the road from Kalka to Rahana. As a punishment the British confiscated the estates of Deharu and Amloh belonging to the Nabha state, and after the conclusion of war the ruler of Nabha was not allowed to attend the viceregal Durbar at Ludhiana, where all chiefs of the protected states came to pay their respects to the Governor-General. After a formal inquiry into his conduct Devinder Singh was ordered to be deposed and his seven year old son installed on the gaddi under the guardianship of a council headed by his grandmother. Mai Chand Kaur. Devinder Singh was first removed to Mathura and then to Lahore in December 1855, where he died on Maghar Vadi 11, 1922 BK., November 14-15, 1865.164

Raja Bharpur Singh (1846-1863)

Raja Bharpur Singh, born on Assuj Sudi 9, 1897 B.K. (October 5, 1840), succeeded his father, Devinder Singh, and attained his age of discretion a few months after the Mutiny broke out in 1857. He expressed his desire to personally conduct operations against mutineers at Delhi. But in consequence of his young age he was not allowed by the British who only accepted a small contingent of 300 troops for service in Delhi. His troops rendered help to the British at Ludhiana and Jalandhar also. For his services he was rewarded by the British. A portion of the confiscated Jhajjar territory, with an income of Rs. 106,000, a year, was granted to the Raja in perpetuity. The right of adoption was conferred upon him by a sanad granted in May 1860, His honorary titles were increased, Lord Elgin, Viceroy of India, gave Raja Bharpur Singh a seat in the Legislative Council in September 1863. He died on the 9th of November of the same year, of severe fever contracted from over-exertion.165 He died without a son and, therefore, was succeeded by his younger brother, Bhagwan Singh. The ceremony of installation took place on the 17th February 1864.166

Raja Bhagwan Singh (1863-1871)

Raja Bhagwan Singh was born on November 30, 1842. At the time of his accession to gaddi there -were two factions among the courtiers. One group was led by Gurbakhsh Singb Mansahia and the other by Munshi Sahib Singh. The group of Sahib Singh charged the other group with killing Raja Bharpur Singh by poisoning. Raja Bhagwan Singh was also involved in this charge. Gurbakhsh Singh Mansahia was tried at law court and exonerated. Munshi Sahib Singh and seven of his group were imprisoned on the plea of levelling a wrong charge against Gurbakhsh Singh. During this time the administrative affairs of the state were conducted by a council. After three years the British restored the rights of the Raja. Raja Bhagwan Singh died on May 31, 1871, due to tuberculosis after a four-month long illness. Raja Bhagwan Singh had three wives none of whom produced any child. With this ended the line of Sardar Gurdit Singh.

Maharaja Hira Singh (1871-1911)

Hira Singh, son of Sukha Singh of Badrukhan, was born on December 19, 1843.

After the death of Bhagwan Singh it was decided to find a successor from the Phul family. Diwan Hakim Rai, considering Hira Singh of Badrukhan to be a legitimate and competent man, recommended him for the gaddi of Nabha, under the signatures of all the courtiers of the state. The British deputed Lepel Griffin and the rulers of Patiala and Jind to inquire from the courtiers of Nabha about the legitimate claimant to the gaddi of Nabha. Hira Singh’s name figured out and he was selected to succeed Bhagwan Singh. The succession took place on August 10, 1871.167

Hira Singh remained loyal to the British. After the Kukas’ row with the butchers of Malerkotia, when the former left the town, Hira Singh’s contingent sent under the command of his minister, Ali Khan, captured them and took them to Malerkotia where they were blown off with the orders of Mr Cowan, the Deputy Commissioner of Ludhiana. In the British combat with the Afghans of Kabul in 1878, Hira Singh sent his contingent of 700 to fight on the side of the British for which he was richly rewarded by the latter.

Raja Hira Singh did a lot to develop the state in various fields. Many new buildings were erected, including a cantonment, a hospital, a jail and a magnificent palace, known as Hira Mahal. An Intermediate College, along with a hostel, was started at Nabha. Big Nabha houses were built at Lahore and Simla. New courts, in the districts, were built. Pucca or metalled roads were constructed joining Nabha with Patiala, Khanna and Malerkotla.168 He was keenly interested in works of public welfare.

Hira Singh’s four wives could produce only one son, Ripudaman Singh, for him. Hira Singh died on December 24, 1911.

Maharaja Ripudaman Singh (1911-1923)

After Hira Singh’s death his son, Ripudaman Singh, who was born on March 4, 1883, formally succeeded to the gaddi on January 24, 1912. Hira Singh had made a very good arrangement for the education of his son who acquired high proficiency in English, Sanskrit and Punjabi. As a Kanwar, Ripudaman Singh had imbibed the spirit of nationalism. From 1906 to 1908, he was an additional member of the viceroy’s law-making council where he delivered many speeches in favour of the national rights of the Indians. Ripudaman Singb was never prepared to give up his patriotic views.

A conflict between Ripudaman Singh and Bhupinder Singh of Patiala was made a plea for the abdication of gaddi by the ruler of Nabha, on July 9, 1923. The British were intent upon dethroning Ripudaman Singh. Even after abdication Ripudaman Singh continued having contacts with the top Indian nationalist leaders like Pandit Moti Lal Nehru and Lala Lajpat Rai. The Sikhs started a morcha at Jaito for the restoration of Ripudaman Singh to his gaddi. The Sikhs suffered immense sacrifices during the morcha. Many leaders of the Indian National Congress, including Jawahar Lal Nehru, visited Jaito and were detained in jail by the British. Ripudaman Singh was transferred to a jail at Kodai Konal in Madras where he died on December 14, 1942.

Maharaja Partap Singh (1923-1948)

After his father Ripudaman Singh’s abdication, Partap Singh, who was born on September 21, 1919, was acknowledged by the government of India as the ruler of Nabha on February 23, 1928. At the time of his father’s abdication in 1923, he was a young boy of four years. During Partap Singh’s minority, first an English administrator was appointed to look after the affairs of the state and then a Council of Regency was set up. Partap Singh helped the British in the Second World War (1939-45). Partap Singh’s state of Nabha became a part of Patiala and East Punjab States Union with effect from July 15, 1948.

Jind State

As referred to earlier, Tiloka, the eldest son of Phul, had two sons, Gurditta and Sukhchain.

Sardar Sukhchain Singh

Sukhchain Singh, the founder of Jind house, had three sons: Alam Singh, Gajpat Singh and Bulaki Singh. Alam Singh, the eldest was a brave soldier and fought with distinction against, the imperial troops many a time and he carved out for himself a sizable tract of territory.169

Before his death, Sukhchain Singh divided his lands among his sons. Balanwali fell to the share of Alam Singh, Badrukhan was given to Gajpat Singh and Dialpura to Bulaki Singh.170

Sukhchain Singh continued putting up at Phul till his death in 1758. Sukhchain Singh’s brother, Gurdit Singh, the founder of the Nabha house, had always hostile intentions against him. Gurdit Singh’s only son, Surtya Singh, had succumbed to the injuries received from Sukhchain Singh’s men. At the connivance of Gurdit Singh, imperial troops were sent to seize Sukhchain Singh who had fallen into arrears as to the payment of the revenues. Sukhchain Singh managed to escape but his five year old son, Gajpat Singh, along with his mother. Agan, fell into the hands of the imperialists and taken to Delhi and imprisoned there. But they managed to escape from the prison in disguise.171 Sukhchain Singh died in 1758, at the age of seventy five.

Raja Gajpat Singh (1738-1789)

Gajpat Singh, the second son of Sukhchain Singh, was born on April 15, 1738.172 He was the most adventurous of his brothers. He lived with his father at Phul till the latter’s death, assisting him against his rival and brother, Gurdit Singh.173

In his youth, Gajpat Singh was a fine, handsome and intelligent person. He was well skilled in all military crafts and exercises.174 He possessed a winsome personality and had a quick grasp of things. In 1767, for being remiss in paying his arrears which amounted to one and a half lakhs, he was imprisoned by Najib Khan Rohilla and taken to Delhi. He remained at Delhi for three years and impressed Muhammad Shah, the Mughal Emperor, as a person of address and good demeanour.175 The Emperor wanted of Gajpat Singh to learn Persian language and wear the dress of a Mughal courtier which wrongly led some orthodox Sikhs attribute to his conversion to Islam.176

He had married the daughter of Kishan Singh Mansahia who bore him four children, Mehar Singh, Bhag Singh, Bhup Singh and a daughter. Raj Kaur who was married to Mahan Singh Sukharchakia in 1774, and became the mother of Ranjit Singh.177 Gajpat Singh also married one of the widows of his elder brother, Alam Singh, and succeeded to his estate of Balanwali. This wife gave birth to a daughter, named Begama. Gajpat Singh’s eldest son, Mehar Singh, died in his life time in 1780, leaving one son, Hari Singh, who was put in possession of Safidon. But Hari Singh, who lived a dissipated life, died in 1791, at the age of 18, by falling from the roof of his house.178

In 1774, Gajpat Singh took Sangrur from the possession of Nabha. In 1775, he not only overran Hansi, Hisar, Rohtak and Gohana but also laid contribution on Panipat and Karnal. His most important possessions included Jind, Sangrur, Safidon and Kharkhoda.179

From 1772 onwards, many attempts were made by the Mughal officers, the hostile Sikh Sardars and the Maratha generals upon Jind and other possessions of the state. Samru attacked Jind in July 1774. All the. Sikhs in the neighbourhood of Jind united to give battle to the invader. In the battle the European-trained battalions of Samru were routed with three hundred of them slain. Thus, Gajpat Singh proved equal to them and saved his territories.

Gajpat Singh extended his capital, Jind, to a large extent and constructed a fort in the north of the town. Safidon had also many buildings of bricks and a strong fort was built there by Gajpat Singh. It was built of bricks with walls of uncommon height.180

Gajpat Singh was a brave and an intrepid ruler. “He was a remarkable man and a prominent figure in those troublous times.”181 He was given the title of ‘Raja’ by Emperor Shah Alam in 1772, under a royal farman and was confirmed in his territories.182

He coined his own money on the model of the coins of Patiala with the only difference of Jind inscribed on them. He had deep affection for Raja Amar Singh of Patiala with whom he joined in almost all his campaigns.”183 There existed great amity and regard for each other and a fellow- feeling between the two. Gajpat Singh helped Amar Singh in the revolt of Prince Himmat Singh in 1765, and again in 1772. He helped the Patiala chief when the latter attacked Bathinda fort in 1771. Amar Singh helped Gajpat Singh when the latter had feud with the Nabha chief in 1774, and again when he (Gajpat Singh) was attacked by Rahim Dad Khan in 1775. Gajpat Singb joined Amar Singh in his attack on Hari Singh of Sialba in 1778. Gajpat Singh played an important role of a mediator in Abdul Ahad’s campaign against Patiala in 1779. Even after the death of Amar Singh in 1781, Gajpat Singh continued to help the Patiala minister, Nanu Mal, in restoring order. When the new ruler, Sahib Singh, was just an adolescent, Gajpat Singh went to Patiala with his contingent to give help to Sahib Singh. Gajpat Singh went to Delhi in 1781, and was given a robe of honour by the Emperor.183a Gajpat Singh exercised formidable influence with the Mughal officers who recommended the cancellation of the amount of his arrears. He died on November 11, 1789, aged about fifty one years and a half.184

Gajpat Singh, who was brought up as a soldier and experienced as a general, took part in not fewer than 30 battles. He extended his territories considerably and the revenue of his state amounted to between 6 and 7 lakhs.185 He is also said to have raised the revenue to rupees 16 lakhs186 His army consisted of 1500 horse and 500 foot.187

Raja Bhag Singh (1789-1819)

The territories of Gajpat Singh were divided between his sons, Bhag Singh and Bhup Singh, the former taking Jind and Safidon with the title of ‘Raja’ and the latter the estate of Badrukhan.

Bhag Singh was born on September 23, 1760. He succeeded to the chiefship of Jind state in November 1789. In 1786, the districts of Gohana and Kharkhoda were conferred upon him in jagir by Emperor Shah Alam. In 1794, Bhag Singh joined the Patiala army under Rani Sahib Kaur, in the attack on the Maratha generals, Anta Rao and Lachman Rao, at Rajgarh near Ambala. In 1795, Bhag Singh lost Karnal which was occupied by the Marathas and made over to George Thomas.188

In 1801, Bhag Singb went to Delhi in company with other chiefs to ask General Perron, commanding the northern division of the Maratha army, to crush George Thomas whose existence at Hansi, on the southern border of the Jind state, was a perpetual menace to all the Sikh chiefs in the neighbourhood. This expedition was successful in driving Thomas from Hansi.189

Raja Bhag Singh was the first of all the great cis-Satluj chiefs to seek an alliance with the British government. He joined the British camp towards the end of 1803. Bhag Singh joined General Lake in his pursuit of Jaswant Rao Holkar in 1805, accompanying him as an envoy to his nephew, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, to tell him of the approach of General Lake, and warn him against espousing the hopeless cause of Holkar.190 Bhag Singh exerted considerable influence with Ranjit Singh in favour of the English. The negotiations between Holkar and Ranjit Singh broke off and the Maratha chief was compelled to leave the Punjab.191 Bhag Singh returned with Lord Lake to Delhi and received the grant of the pargana of Bawanat, immediately to the south-west of Panipat. It was a life-grant in the name of Kanwar Partap Singh.192

During the cis-Satluj campaign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1806, Bhag Singh received from, his nephew (the Maharaja), Ludhiana consisting of 24 villages worth Rs. 15,380, a year; 24 villages of Jandiala from the same family, worth Rs. 4370; two villages of Kot and two of Jagraon, worth Rs. 2,000, a year. During the expedition of 1807, Bhag Singh received from the Maharaja three villages of Ghungrana and 27 villages of Morinda in Sirhind, and all together worth Rs. 19,255, a year.193

A deputation, which included Raja Bhag Singh, met Mr Seton on March 22, 1808, in Delhi and solicited the English help urgently. He joined General Ochterlony in conducting negotiations with the Sikh chiefs. He put more confidence in the friendship of the English than that of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Raja Bhag Singh was willing to give up Ludhiana to the English who realised its potentialities as a strategic cantonment on their border. Bhag Singh wanted Karnal in exchange for Ludhiana but the government rejected the proposal for Karnal and allowed the Raja a fair amount of compensation for the loss of Ludhiana.194 Raja Bhag Singh had three sons, Fateh Singh, Partap Singh and Mehtab Singh.195

From the year 1814 onwards, Bhag Singh began to fall seriously out of health. He died on June 16, 1819.

Raja Fateh Singh (1819-1822)

After Bhag Singh’s death his eldest son, Fateh Singh, succeeded him. He was born on May 6, 1789. The reign of Fateh Singh was very short and uneventful. He died on the 3rd of February 1822, at his residence, at Sangrur at the age of thirty three, leaving one son, Sangat Singh, eleven years of age.196

Raja Sangat Singh (1822-1834)

The installation of the young Rajat Sangat Singh, who was born on July 16, 1810, took place on July 30, 1822, at Jind. In 1826, Sangat Singh visited Lahore. He repeated his visit to Lahore next year. He was received by Maharaja Ranjit Singh very courteously. The Maharaja made many grants of lands to Sangat Singh that involved him into disputes with the British government.197 The British government urged upon the Raja the fundamental principle that the protected chiefs must abstain from all connections with foreign princes and governments without the knowledge and sanction of the British government. In spite of the remonstrances to the contrary Raja Sangat Singh again opened negotiations with the court of Lahore and personally visited it, in 1834.198 Sangat Singh’s annual revenue collection was about two and a half lakh rupees and his army both of horse and foot comprised about five or six hundred men.199 Sangat Singh was a brave young man and was fond of hunting.200

At the time of his sudden death on November 4-5, 1834, Sangat Singh was merely twenty three years old. He had married three wives but he left no son to succeed him.201 The nearest relations who could advance valid claims to the gaddi were three second cousins, Sarup Singh, Sukha Singh and Bhagwan Singh. But these candidates had, for long, been cut off from the straight line of succession to the Jind branch of the family. Many people advanced their claims to the gaddi, including the widows of Sangat Singh and of his father, and the Raja of Nabha.

Raja Sarup Singh (1834-1864)

Sarup Singh of Bazidpur, who was born on May 30, 1812, succeeded Raja Sangat Singh. He was formally installed, in the presence of all the Phulkian chiefs and the British Agent, in April 1837.202 In the Anglo-Sikh War of 1845-46, Raja Sarup Singh was called upon by the British to supply 150 camels for the use of Sirhind Division. The Raja neglected to comply with the demand in spite of repeated promises and assurances. But later he served the British government and was again received into favour.  He rendered significant service to the British during the Mutiny of 1857.203 He was present at the siege of Delhi. He suppressed slavery, infanticide and sati in his state. He also abolished transit duties. Sarup Singh died of acute dysentery on January 26, 1864.204

Raja Raghbir Singh (1864-1887)

Sarup Singh was succeeded by his son, Raghbir Singh, who was born in 1832. The installation of the new chief took place on March 31, 1864.205 He was, in every way, worthy of his father. The new Raja had scarcely taken his seat on the gaddi when a rebellion broke out in the newly acquired territory of Dadri to test his energy and determination. The Dadri people made a great mistake when they fancied that the new Raja was less energetic than his father. He did not ask Patiala or Nabha for assistance which they were quite willing to give, and he also declined the presence of a British officer in his camp. He crushed the rebellion and destroyed the villages which were the strongholds of the rebels. But he was merciful after his success. He only punished the ring leaders of the revolt, permitting the zamindars to return to Dadri territory and rebuild their ruined villages.206

The principal residence of Raja Raghbir Singb was at Sangrur but he did not neglect the administration of even the distant parts of his state. He was a man of excellent judgement and great honesty. He died on March 7, 1887.207

Raja Ranbir Singh (1887-1948)

Ranbir Singh succeeded his grandfather, Raghbir Singh (his father, Balbir Singh, having died on November 26, 1883, in his youth). Ranbir Singh who was born on October 11, 1879, was very young at the time of his predecessor’s death in 1887. So a Council of Regency was appointed to look after the affairs of the state. The installation ceremony of Ranbir Singh took place on February 27, 1888, when he was nine years of age.208

In 1911, he was present at Delhi at the coronation ceremony of George V. In 1926, he was given, by the British, the honorary title of colonel in the army. He visited Europe many times. He died on April 1, 1948. He was succeeded by his son, Rajbir Singh. In July 1948, Jind state lapsed into the Patiala and East Punjab States Union.

Notes and References

  1. Lepel Griffin, Rajas of the Punjab, Lahore, 1873, p. 2; Gian Singh, Tawarikh Guru Khalsa, Part-II, (reprint, 1970), p. 541; cf., Tazkirah-i-Khandan-i-Rajah-i-Phulkian, Persian MS., Dr Ganda Singh Private Collection, Patiala, p. 1. Henceforth this manuscript would be referred to as Tazkirah-i- Phulkian; Bute Shah, Tawarikh-i-Punjab, Daftar IV, MS., Dr Ganda Singh Private Collection, Patiala, p. 243.
  2. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., pp. 2-3; Gian Singh, op. cit., pp. 541-42.
  3. Ibid., p. 3; cf., Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 542.
  4. Ibid., pp. 3-5; cf. Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 542.
  5. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 1; Gian, op. cit., pp. 542-43.
  6. Gian Singh, op. cit., pp. 543-44.
  7. Ibid., p. 544; cf., Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 11; cf., Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 274; Griffin, op. cit., pp. 5-6.
  8. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 1; Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 274.
  9. Lepel Griffin, op cit., p. 6; Gian Singh, op. cit., pp. 545-46.
  10. Ibid., Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 546.
  11. S.N. Banerjee, A History of Patiala, Vol. I, Part II, (typed MS., Dr Ganda Singh Private Collection, Patiala) pp. 2-3. Khalifa Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, Tarikh-i-Patiala, Amritsar, (1878), pp. 33-34.
  12. Tazikrah-i-Phulkian. p. 3.
  13. Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 546; cf., Lepel Griffin, op. cit; p. 6.
  14. S.N. Banerjee, op. cit., pp. 3-4.
  15. Khushwaqat Rai, Tawarikh-i-Sikhan, MS., GS., pp. 114-15; Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 274; Kanaihya Lal Tarikh-i-Punjab, Lahore, 1877, p. 108; Khalifa Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan. op. cit., p. 34; Muhammad Latif, History of the Punjab (1891), Delhi reprint 1964, p. 325.
  16. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, op. cit., p. 2; cf., Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 274; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 7; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 547.
  17. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 7.
  18. Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 547; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., pp. 34-35.
  19. Tazkirah-i- Phulkian, pp. 2-3.
  20. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 7; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 547; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 325.
  21. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 3; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 7; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 547; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., pp. 325-26.
  22. Karam Singh, Maharaja Ala Singh, Tarn Taran, 1918, p. 59.
  23. Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 275.
  24. Khalifa Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., pp. 36-37; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 326.
  25. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 8.
  26. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 2; S.N. Banerjee, op. cit., p. 10; Gian Singh, op. cit., pp. 546-47.
  27. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian. p. 2; Gian Singh, op. cit., pp. Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 37.
  28. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 10.
  29. Ganda Singh (ed.), Hukamname, Patiala, 1967, p. 147.
  30. Rattan Singh Bhangu, Prachin Panth Prakash, (1841), Amritsar, 1939, p. 58; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 549.
  31. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 7; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., pp. 11-12.
  32. S.N. Banerjee, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 17.
  33. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 12; S.N. Banerjee, op. cit., p. 19.
  34. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 13; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., pp. 38-39; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 326, Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 551.
  35. S.N. Banerjee, op. cit., p. 20.
  36. Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 275; Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 7.
  37. S.N. Banerjee, op. cit., p. 21; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 39.
  38. Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 551.
  39. S.N. Banerjee, op. cit., p. 25.
  40. Lepel Griffin op. cit., p. 14; S.N. Banerjee, op. cit., p. 25; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 552.
  41. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 14; S.N. Banerjee, op. cit., p. 26; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 552.
  42. Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 275; Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 11; Lepel Griffin, op. cit, p. 15.
  43. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 11.
  44. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 15; cf., Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 11.
  45. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, pp. 11-12; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 15.
  46. Ibid., p. 12; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 15.
  47. Rattan Singh Bhangu, op. cit., p. 206.
  48. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 12.
  49. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., pp. 19-20; Gian Singh, op. cit., pp. 555-56.
  50. Ibid., p. 20.
  51. S.N. Banerjee, op. cit., p. 3S; cf., Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 20; cf., Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 13; Muhammad Latif. op. cit., p 327.
  52. Ibid, Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., pp. 49-50. Kirpal Singh, Maharaja Ala Singh and His Times, Amritsar. 1954, pp. 77-78.
  53. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, pp. 13-15.
  54. S.N. Banerjee, op. cit., p, 39; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 21; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan op. cit., pp. 51-52.
  55. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian. pp. 15-16; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., pp. 21-22, Muhammad Latif, op. cit., pp. 326-27.
  56. Ibid., p. 16; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 55; S.N. Banerjee, op. cit., p. 41. It is more reliably believed that Bhikan Khan died in December 1763, in an engagement with Amar Singh not near Kakra but at Kalanjhar near Kotla. In 1761, Bhikan Khan was defeated and repulsed.
  57. Anand Ram Mukhlis, Tazkirah (1748), MS., PUP., p. 271; S.N. Banerjee, op. cit., p. 63.
  58. S.N. Banerjee, op. cit., p. 66; cf., Bakht Mal, Khalsa Nama, MS., PUP., p. 40; Malcolm, Sketch of the Sikhs, London, 1812. p. 93; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., pp. 228-29.
  59. Ibid., pp. 68-69.
  60. Rajwade, Marathyanchya Itihaschin Sadhane, Vol. VI, p. 407; Ghulam Ali-Azad Bilgrami, Khazana- i-Amira, (1762-63), Cawnpore, 1900; Jadunaths Sarkar, Fall of the Mughal Empire, Vol. II, Calcutta, 1934, p. 308. According to Hari Ram Gupta, the following places contain Maratha. families, descending from the refugees of 1761. Birchpur 40 families, Dola 15 families, Julana Mandi 10 families, Kaithal 80 families, Karsola. (Jind state) 50 families, Manduthi near Asoda 20 families, Moi 6 families, Narwana 90 families, Phurlak 2 families, Rathal near Rohtak 15 families, Sargthal 2 families, Sikandarpur Majra 500 Maratha Brahmans, Thana on Rohtak-Kotli Road 150 families (vide Author’s Marathas and Panipat, p. 288), History of the Sikhs, Vol. IV, p. 150, fn. 1.
  61. Qazi Nur Muhammad, Jang Nama (1765), ed. Ganda Singh, Amritsar, 1939, p. 48; Tazkirah-i- Phulkian, pp. 16-17; Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 260; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 24; Karam Singh, Maharaja Ala Singh, Tarn Taran, 1918, p. 24.
  62. S.N. Banerjee, op. cit., p. 75.
  63. Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 733; Ramjas, Tawarikh-i-Riast Kapurthala, Lahore, 1897; p. 150; S.N. Banerjee, op. cit., pp. 75-76.
  64. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 17; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., pp. 61-62.
  65. Qazi Nur Muhammad; op. cit., pp. 45-46.
  66. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 17; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 62. Khazan Singh, History and Philosophy of the Sikh Religion, Part I, Lahore, 1914, p. 291.
  67. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 18; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 560; Khazan Singh, op. cit., I, p. 291; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 327.
  68. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, pp. 12-13; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit; p. 62; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 561.
  69. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 13; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., pp. 62-63.
  70. Ibid., p. 12; Gian Singb, op, cit; p. 562.
  71. Gian Singh op. cit., p. 562.
  72. Hari Ram Gupta, History of the Sikhs. Vol. IV, Delhi, 1984, p. 154.
  73. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 28; cf; Bute Shah, op. cit., pp. 275-76; Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, pp. 10-11; S.N. Banerjee, op. cit., pp. 102-03.
  74. Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 276; Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 11.
  75. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian. p. 18; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., pp. 29-30; Sayid Muhammad Hassan Khan, op. cit., p. 64.
  76. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 18; cf., Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 261; cf., Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., pp. 65-66.
  77. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 30; cf., Bute Shah op. cit., IV, p. 27,7; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 562; Balwant Singh. Sidhu Braran da Ithas (Punjabi), 1956, p. 72.
  78. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 18.
  79. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., pp. 30-31; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 562; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., pp. 79-80.
  80. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 19; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 563; Lepel Griffin, op cit., p. 31.
  81. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 19; Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., pp. 74-75.
  82. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 31; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 563; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 327; cf., Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, pp. 19-20.
  83. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 21; S.N. Banerjee, op. cit., pp. 125-26; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 81.
  84. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 21; Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, pp. 263-64; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 81.
  85. S.N. Banerjee, op. cit., pp. 128-29.
  86. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 22; Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 261; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., pp. 34-35.
  87. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, pp. 23-24; Bute Shah, op. cit., IV. p. 261.
  88. Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 261; Tazkirah-i-Phulkian. p. 24.
  89. Ibid., p. 262; Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 26.
  90. Ibid, p. 262; Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 26.
  91. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, pp. 29-30; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 39.
  92. Ibid., pp. 30-3.
  93. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., 43-44; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., Pp. 107-11.
  94. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, pp. 36-39; Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 266; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 569; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 112.
  95. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 40; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., pp. 113-14.
  96. Ibid., p. 40; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., pp. 47-48; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 114.
  97. Ibid., pp 40-41; Bute Shah, op. cit., pp. 267-68; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., pp. 114- 15.
  98. Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 267; Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, pp. 40-41.
  99. Ibid., p. 268; Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 41; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., pp. 114-15.
  100. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 41; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 50; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 118; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 328; Khazan Singh, op. cit., I, p. 292.
  101. Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 120; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 571.
  102. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, p. 42; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 571.
  103. Ibid., pp. 42-44, Bute Shah, op. cit., pp. 269-71; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., pp. 52-53; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., pp. 120-23.
  104. Ibid., pp. 45.46; Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 272; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 55; Say id Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., pp. 125-26; Gian Singh, op. cit., pp. 572-73; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 328.
  105. Ibid., 47-49; cf., Khushwaqat Rai, op. cit., p. 117; Bute Shah. op. cit., IV, pp. 274-77; Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., pp. 126-27.
  106. Ibid., pp. 49-50; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 575; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., pp. 131-32.
  107. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 59; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 575; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 137.
  108. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, pp. 53-56; Gian Singh, op. cit., pp. 576-77.
  109. Ibid., pp. 57-59; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit; pp. 145-146; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 577- 78.
  110. Ibid., p. 61; Ibid., p. 147; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 578.
  111. Ibid., p. 62; Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, pp. 284-85; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 149.
  112. Ibid., pp. 62-63; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 149; Giani Singh, op. cit., p. 578.
  113. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 67; cf.. Ibid., p. 149.
  114. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian. p. 68; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 579.
  115. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., pp. 71-72; Gian Singb, op. cit., pp. 580-81; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 328.
  116. Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, pp. 76-77; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 585; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., pp. 170-71.
  117. Ibid, p. 77; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 79; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 585; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 172.
  118. Sohan Lal Suri, Umdat-ut-Tawarikh, II, Lahore, 1885, pp. 65-66; Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 195.
  119. Khushwaqat Rai, op. cit., p. 120.
  120. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 141; Tazkirah-i-Phulkian, pp. 100-01; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 596; Khalifa Sayid Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 255.
  121. Lepel Griffin, op. cit. p. 131.
  122. Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 259; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 597.
  123. Ibid., p. 264.
  124. Ibid., pp. 264-69.
  125. Ibid., pp. 273-76; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., pp. 155-57.
  126. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., pp. 158-50.
  127. Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 344.
  128. James Skinner, Kitab-i-Haqiq-i-Rajgan also called Tazkirat-ul-Umra, (183o) MS, Ganda Singh, personal collection, now at PUP., p. 184.
  129. Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 346; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 602.
  130. Muhammad Latif. op. cit., p. 329.
  131. Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p. 461; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 611.
  132. Ibid., p. 528; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 614.
  133. Ibid., pp. 570-71; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 330.
  134. Ibid., p. 574; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 616; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 330.
  135. Muhammad Hasan Khan, op. cit., p, 573; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 615.
  136. Ibid., p. 734.
  137. Ibid , pp. 759-62; Muharnmad Latif, op. cit., p. 330.
  138. Ibid., p. 765.
  139. Ibid., p. 777.
  140. Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 619.
  141. Ibid., p. 623.
  142. Ibid., p. 619; Somerset Playne (Compiler) ‘The State of Patiala’, Indian States, (The Foreign and Colonial Compiling and Publishing Co. 6, West Harding Street, London, E.C., 1921-22), p. 238.
  143. Samerset Playne, op. cit., p. 238.
  144. Ibid., p. 239.
  145. Ganda Singh, ‘Obituary—Maharaja Yadavindra Singh of Patiala’, The Punjab Past and Present, Vol. VIII, Patiala, 1974, p. 513.
  146. K. M. Panikkar, An Autobiography, Madras, 1977, pp. 85-86.
  147. Lord John, The Maharajas, London, 1972, p. 161.
  148. Ganda Singh, ‘Obituary—Maharaja Yadvindra Singh of Patiala’, The Panjab Past and Present, Vol. VIII, p. 514.
  149. Ganda Singh, A Bibliography of the Patiala and East Panjab States Union, p. 42.
  150. Ibid.
  151. Ganda Singh, ‘Obituary—Maharaja Yadvindra Singh of Patiala,’ The Panjab Past and Present, Vol. VIII, p. 526.
  152. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 282; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 628.
  153. Ibid., p. 381; Gian Singh, op. cit., pp. 628-29.
  154. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 381; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 629; Kanaihya Lal, op. cit., p. III; Muhammad Latif, op. cit; p. 332; cf., Khushwaqat Rai, op. cit. p. 121.
  155. James Skinner. Kitab-i-Haqiq-i-Rajgan also called Tazkirat-ul-Umra, (MS. 1830, Dr Ganda Singh private collection, Patiala.), p. 179.
  156. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 382; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 629; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 332.
  157. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 382.
  158. Khushwaqal Rai, op. cit., p, 121; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 382; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 631; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 382.
  159. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 382; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 652,
  160. Ibid., p. 396; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 322; Khazan Singh, op. cit., 1, p. 297.
  161. James Skinner, op. cit., p. 180.
  162. Gian Singh, op. cit, p. 640.
  163. Muhammad Latif, op. cit., pp. 332-33; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 641.
  164. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 419; Ganda Singh, A Bibliography of the Patiala and East Punjab States Union, Patiala, 1954, p. 43.
  165. Ibid., p. 433; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 653; cf., Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 334.
  166. Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 653; cf., Khazan Singh, op. cit., p. 298.
  167. Ibid., p. 658.
  168. Ibid., pp. 660-61.
  169. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 283; Gian Singh, op. cit., pp. 662-63.
  170. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., pp. 283-84. Bute Shah wrongly writes that Sukhchain Singh had only two sons, Alam Singh and Gajpat Singh. Bulaki Singh, the third son of Sukhchain Singh was the founder of the Dialpura Branch of the Jind family (Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 279).
  171. Lepel Griffin, op cit., p. 284; Gian Singh, op. cit., pp. 662-63.
  172. Ibid., p. 284.
  173. Ibid.
  174. Ibid.
  175. Giani Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 664.
  176. Khushwaqat Rai wrongly believes that Gajpat Singh was turned a Muhammadan by the Emperor of Delhi and was later brought into the-fold of Sikhism by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia (Tawarikh-i-Sikhan, p. 121).
  177. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 285; Gian Singh, p. 661; Kanaihya Lal, Tarikh-i-Punjab, p. 113.
  178. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 291; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 666.
  179. Khushwaqat Rai, op. cit., p. 121.
  180. Francklin, Military Memoirs of George Thomas, pp. 288-90.
  181. R. C. Temple, The Indian Antiquary, p. 10.
  182. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 285; Gian Singh, p. 665; Delhi Chronicle, p.143.
  183. Ibid., p. 290; Ibid., p. 665.
  184. Rajwada, Vol. XII, Letter No. 19, dated 25-5-1781.
  185. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 291.
  186. Punjab Stale Gazetteers, Vol. XLIII, Jind State, Statistical Tables (1933).
  187. Halat-i-Jind. p. 7.
  188. James Browne, ‘History of the Origin and Progress of the Sikhs’, published in Ganda Singh’s (edited) Early European Accounts of the Sikhs, (ed. 1962), p. 43.
  189. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 292; Gian Singh, op, cit., p. 667.
  190. Ibid., pp. 292-93; Ibid., pp. 667-68; cf., James Skinner, Kitab-i-Haqiaq-i-Rajgan, also called
  191. Tazkirat-ul Umra, (Ms. 1830), p. 165.
  192. Sohan Lal Suri, op. cit., II, p. 58.
  193. Ibid.
  194. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 294; cf., James Skinner, op. cit., p. 165.
  195. Ibid., p. 295; cf., James Skinner, op. cit., p. 165.
  196. James Skinner, op. cit., p. 166; Gian Singh, op. cit., pp. 670-71.
  197. Ibid., p. 165; Gian Singh, op. cit., pp. 672-73.
  198. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 322; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 678.
  199. Ibid., p. 324; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 679. 198. Ibid., pp. 327-28; Ibid., pp. 679-80.
  200. James Skinner, op. cit., p. 168.
  201. Ibid.
  202. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 329; Gian Singb, op. cit., p, 682; Kanaihya Lal, op. cit., p. 114.
  203. Ibid., p. 346.
  204. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., pp. 355-57; Gian Singh, op. cit., p.687; Kanaihya Lal, op. cit., p. 114; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 114.
  205. Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 332; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 693.
  206. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 375; Gian Singh, op, cit; p. 694. 206. Ibid., p. 378; Ibid., p. 695.
  207. Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 698.
  208. Ibid.