News & Updates

October 23, 2017


Jats and Sikh Militarization - Refutes the assertion that Sikh militarization was due to influx of Jats in the Sikh fold. 


August 24, 2017


Kurukshetra Sakhi and Meat – Debunks the theory that Guru Sahib advocated meat eating at Kurukshetra through revealed Shabads of ‘Maas Maas Kar’.


Check Past Updates

Find Us On...

Find Sikhism: Sikh Religion, Beliefs, Philosophy and Principles on FacebookFind Sikhism: Sikh Religion, Beliefs, Philosophy and Principles on Twitter

The Bhangi Misal

The Bhangi Misal was one of the most famous Misals of the Sikhs. Members of this Misal ruled Amritsar, Gujrat, Chiniot and a part of the city of Lahore. This Misal outshined the other Misals in its earlier stages and the Bhangis were probably the first to establish an independent government of their own in their conquered territories. Even in the initial stages of the Misal’s history they had nearly twelve thousand horsemen.

Chajja Singh

The founder of the Bhangi Misal, Chajja Singh, a Jat, was a native of Panjwar village, eight kos from Amritsar.1 He was the first companion of Banda Singh to receive Sikh baptism.2 According to Kanaihya Lal, he had taken pahul at the hands of Guru Gobind Singh.3  The Bhangi Misal is said to have its name from its founder’s addiction to bhang—an intoxicating preparation of hemp.4  After the death of Banda Singh, Chajja Singh administered pahul to Bhima (Bhuma) Singh, Natha Singh and Jagat Singh and made them his companions.5  Accompanied by many others, he took to vigorous activities and harassing the tyrannical government officials. Chajja Singh’s companions whole-heartedly cooperated with him in his armed operations in the face of grave dangers from the all-out efforts of the government to liquidate them.

A little later Chajja Singh was joined by Mohan Singh and Gulab Singh of Dhoussa village, six miles north-east of Amritsar, Karora Singh of Choupal, Gurbakhsh Singh, a Sandhu Jat of Roranwala, Agar Singh Khangora and Sawan Singh Randhawa. They all took pahul from Chajja Singh and formed a strong band of anti-state activists.6 They carried conviction in their heads that Guru Gobind Singh had destined the rajor sovereign power of the Punjab for them. With that mission before them they were vehemently inspired to pursue their activities against the Mughal government of the Punjab.7 In due course of time Chajja Singh passed away.

Bhima Singh

After Chajja Singh’s death Bhima Singh (or Bhuma Singh), a Dhillon Jat of village Hung, in the pargana of Wadni, near Moga, became his successor. Bhima Singh’s latent genius as an organiser and commander of his men gave a fillip to the Misal. His old associates Natha Singh and Jagat Singh became his subordinates and a large number of Sikhs rallied round them.8 Nadir Shah’s invasion, in 1739, had caused great commotion in the country, Bhima Singh took full advantage of it and turned the small band of attackers, left by his predecessor, into a powerful confederacy.9 He seems to have died in the Chhota ghallughara, in 1746. It is said that Bhima Singh was of so arrogant a disposition that he was called by the Sikhs bala-bash (a high-head). This, being a Turkoman title, annoyed Bhima Singh so much that he begged his comrades to change it for some other. Accordingly, he was appointed to pound bhang for the Sikhs and began to be called Bhangi. This account is popularly believed.10

Hari Singh

Since Bhima Singh was childless, he adopted Hari Singh as his son. Hari Singh became the next chief of the Bhangi Misal. He had taken pahul from Bhima Singh and had become his close associate from an early life. Hari Singh, the resident of Panjwar village, possessed the qualities of bravery and intrepidity.  According to Lepel Griffin, Hari Singh was the son of Bhup Singh, a zamindar of Pattoh, near Wadni.11 He organised a large band of his followers with which he embarked upon the career of a conqueror. The numerical strength of his followers increased considerably. The fighting strength of the Bhangi Misal at this time was, about 20,000 men who were stationed at different places of his territory.12

By the time of Hari Singh’s succession to cheifship of the Misal, Natha Singh and Jagat Singh, the close associates of his predecessor, had died. He appointed Jhanda Singh in place of Natha Singh and Ganda Singh in place of Jagat Singh,13 who made great contributions to his achievements. Hari Singh fought a number of times against Abroad Shah Abdali.14 He was fond of keeping good horses in his stable.

Hari Singh had many Misaldars under him. It would not be out of place to differentiate here the respective positions of the Sardar and the Misaldar. A Sardar was the head of the whole Misal whereas there were many Misaldars in a Misal. The Misaldars had parts of the territory of the Misal assigned to them by the Sardar for their services to him in carving out a Misal or a state for him. The Misaldars used to join hands with the Sardar at the time of foreign danger or to fight together against a common enemy. They used to get share from the spoils according to the number of their men.

Hari Singh set up his headquarters at Gilwali village in the Amritsar district. He captured Sialkot, Karial and Mirowal. He also led his expeditions to Chiniot and Jhang. In 1762, he attacked Kot Khwaja Saeed, two miles from Lahore, where Khwaja Ubaid, the Afghan governor of Lahore, had kept his large magazine containing ordnance, arms and munitions of war, the whole of which was carried away by him. He also took away from there the big gun, later known as top Bhangian,15 manufactured by Sardar Jahan Khan. He conquered the fort of Kehlwar in the Sandalbar area. He returned the same to its former masters on the assurance of receiving one lakh rupees annually as a tribute from them.16 He also subdued the surrounding areas of Bahawalpur.

He next invaded the territories of the Indus and the Derajat. His commanders also conquered Rawalpindi.17 The Majha and Malwa areas were also subdued. He also took his arms to Jammu at the head of 12,000 horsemen, and made its ruler Ranjit Deo his tributary. On the Jamuna, Rai Singh Bhangi, Bhagel Singh Karora Singhia and Hari Singh harassed the old Najib-ud- Daula who wanted to restrain the progress of the Sikh chiefs with the help of the combined forces of the Rohillas and the Marathas. In 1763, Hari Singh joined the Kanaihyas and Ramgarhias in an attack on Kasur and the following year he fought Amar Singh of Patiala but was killed in the action.18 He died of a gunshot which struck him at Lang-Chalella in Patiala state.19 He held the Sardari of his Misal for eight years.20

Hari Singh had two wives, the first of whom was the daughter of Chaudhari of Panjwar, near Tarn Taran. He had two sons, Jhanda Singh and Ganda Singh from the first wife and Charhat Singh, Diwan Singh and Desu Singh from the second.21

Jhanda Singh

After the death of Hari Singh, his eldest son Jhanda Singh succeeded him. He appointed his younger brother Ganda Singh as the commander-in-chief of the forces of the Bhangi Misal.22 The army was reorganised and its numerical strength was increased. In political power and military resources Jhanda Singh made a remarkable improvement on the position as it obtained under Hari Singh.23 Jhanda Singh and his brothers, associated by many illustrious leaders like Sahib Singh of Sialkot, Rai Singh and Sher Singh of Buria, Bhag Singh of Hallowal, Sudh Singh Dodia, Nidhan Singh Attu, Tara Singh Chainpuria, Bagh Singh Jalalwalia, Gujjar Singh and Lehna Singh, made great efforts to place the Misal on a very sound footing.24 Jassa Singh Ramgarhia was one of the close friends of Jhanda Singh.25

One of the bravest men under Hari Singh Bhangi was Gurbakhsh Singh, an associate of Bhima Singh. He was a great warrior and had about forty villages under him. Being childless he adopted Lehna Singh, son of Dargaha, a Jat of Sadhawala in the Amritsar district, as his son. On Gurbakhsh Singh’s death his son Lehna Singh succeeded him. Gujjar Singh was the son of Gurbakhsh Singh’s brother. A dispute cropped up between Lehna Singh and Gujjar Singh over the division of the estate left by Gurbakhsh Singh. Ultimately the estate was equally divided between these two Misaldars. These two chiefs, along with Sobha Singh, nephew of Jai Singh Kanaihya, accepted the subordination of Jhanda Singh, the Sardar of the Bhangi Misal.

According to Ahmad Shah Batalia, Ahmad Shah Durrani had left behind Kabuli Mal as the governor of Lahore. Gujjar Singh and Lehna Singh decided to occupy Lahore. They were joined by Sobha Singh. At the head of their forces they marched and besieged Lahore. As a measure of protection Kabuli Mal had bricked up all entrances and when he found it impossible to hold out against the besiegers he escaped from Lahore, leaving it in the hands of the above said trio,26 in April 1765.

At the head of a large army, Jhanda Singh marched towards Multan in 1766, and declared war against Shujab Khan, the Muhammadan governor, and the Daudputras of Bahawalpur. An indecisive battle was fought on the banks of river Satluj. A treaty was concluded with Bhangi chief on one side and Mubarak Khan, the Daudputra chief, and the Multan governor, in the other. Jhanda Singh was acknowledged as the lord of the territories up to Pakpattan.27 In 1767, he built a fort behind the Loon Mandi in Amritsar which has been known as Qila-i-Bhangian.28

Jhanda Singh, next, marched towards the Pathan principality of Kasur which was subdued. He made a fresh attack on, Multan, later in 1771,29 but it was repulsed by the combined Forces of Multan and Bahawalpur.

The following year, a quarrel arose between the successive governors of Multan, Shujah Khan, Sharif Khan Suddozai and Sharif Beg Taklu. Sharif Beg had been looking after Multan since the days of Ahmad Shah Abdali. When Timur Shah ascended the throne of Kabul he demanded the revenue of Multan from Sharif Beg, who got refractory and asked for help from Jhanda Singh, in return for a nazarana of one lakh rupees. The help was readily given.30 Jhanda Singh accompanied by his brother, Ganda Singh, and Lehna Singh, at the head of a well-equipped and strong army, marched to Multan on December 25, 1772, and achieved a complete victory over Shujah Khan and the Daudputras, subjecting them to heavy losses. Multan was divided among themselves by Jhanda Singh and Lehna Singh. Diwan Singh Chachowalia was appointed the qiladar of Multan, garrisoning the place with the Bhangi forces.31 Sharif Beg, utterly disappointed, fled to Talamba and then to Khairpur where he died a brokenhearted man.

On his return from Multan, Jhanda Singh subdued the Baloch territory,32 captured Jhang and conquered Mankera and Kala Bagh. He failed to capture Shujahbad built by the Afghans after the loss of Multan. He, then, recovered the famous zamzama or Bhangi gun from the Chathas of Ramnagar.33

According to Ali-ud-Din Mufti, a serious dispute arose between Raja Ranjit Deo of Jammu and his eldest son Brij Raj Deo, in 1770. The heir-apparent was of a dissolute character. The father, a man of great ability and sound judgement, wanted, therefore, his younger son Daler (Dalel) Singh to succeed him. The quarrel developed into an explosive situation. The immature and raw youth, not realising the consequences, sought assistance from Charhat Singh Sukarchakia and Jai Singh Kanaihya, both of whom readily agreed. Raja Ranjit Deo could not fight against this formidable coalition single-handed and invited Jhanda Singh Bhangi to help him.34

The united forces of the Sukarchakia and Kanaihya chiefs marched into the Jammu hills and encamped on the Basanter river, a little east of Jammu. Ranjit Deo collected an army of his own, as well as of his allies, such as the chiefs of Chamba, Nurpur and Basoli in addition to the forces of Jhanda Singh.

The contest took place at Dasuha, adjacent to Zafarwal. The fighting dragged on for some days without yielding any result. One day Charhat Singh Sukarchakia was accidentally killed by the bursting of his own gun which struck him on the forehead35 in 1770.

The loss of Charhat Singh was too great for the allies who found it difficult to maintain their position against the powerful Bhangi chief, Jhanda Singh. It was also felt by Jai Singh that Charhat Singh’s son, Mahan Singh, was too young to be a match for Jhanda Singh who was deadly against the Sukarchakias. Jai Singh, therefore, decided that their safety lay in the murder of the Bhangi Sardar. Consequently he bribed a Rangretta or a Mazhbi Sikh in the service of Jhanda Singh whom he shot dead36 from behind while he was walking in his camp unattended, soon after Charhat Singh’s death.

Under Jhanda Singh the annual income of the Misal was estimated to be one crore rupees.37 Jhanda Singh was a great organiser and an administrator. The Bhangi Misal made a considerable progress under his able stewardship. He headed his Misal for six years.38

Ganda Singh

After Jhanda Singh’s death, his brother, Ganda Singh, succeeded to the Sardari of the Misal. Ganda Singh completed the works of improvement which had been undertaken by his deceased brother at Amritsar. He strengthened the Bhangi fort and enlarged and beautified the town with many impressive buildings.39

Ganda Singh was feeling very uneasy in his mind due to the treachery of the Kanaihyas which had brought about the death of his brother. According to Ahmad Shah Batalia, Jhanda Singh had conferred Pathankot on one of his Misaldars, Nand Singh, also called Mansa Singh, who died about the same time as his chief, leaving behind him his widow and a daughter. The widow married her daughter to Tara Singh, brother of Hakikat Singh Kanaihya. She also gave away the jagir of Pathankot to her son-in-law. Since Ganda Singh was inimical to the Kanaihyas for their nefarious act of arranging the murder of his brother he felt severely annoyed over both the acts of Nand Singh’s widow. He asked the Kanaihyas to hand over Pathankot to him but they insisted upon holding it as their rightful possession. Thereupon, Ganda Singh, at the head of a large army, and with the Bhangi gun, Zamzama, marched to Pathankot via Batala and was joined by the Ramgarhias who were friendly to the Bhangis and hostile to the Kanaihyas. Tara Singh and Hakikat Singh were joined by Gurbakhsh Singh, son of Jai Singh Kanaihya, and Amar Singh Bagga. The two armies faced each other at Dinanagar where fighting continued for several days without any result. Ganda Singh, who was already not keeping good health, suffered from exhaustion due to his military actions and activities. He fell ill and in the course of ten days he passed away,40 in 1774. Ganda Singh held the Sardari of the Misal for a few years.41

After the death of Ganda Singh, in preference to Desu (Desa) Singh, his younger brother Charhat Singh succeeded to the chiefship of the Misal. But shortly thereafter Charhat Singh was killed in an action.42 These successive deaths of the Bhangi rulers broke the back of the Misal and the Kanaihyas had an upper hand in the contest for power. So helplessly, Desu Singh was installed to head the Misal.

Desu Singh

Desu Singh, the new Sardar of the Bhangi Misal, appointed one Gujjar Singh as his minister with whose intercession he concluded peace with Kanaihyas and returned to Amritsar.43 The fort of Pathankot remained in the hands of Tara Singh.44 Since the Misal came in the hands of the stripling, much could not be expected from him immediately. Many Misaldars who had earlier been giving all the military assistance expected of them, became independent. Jhang ceased to pay tribute. Muzaffar Khan, son of Shujah Khan, helped by the Bahawalpur chief, made a bid to recover Multan in 1777. He was, however, repulsed by Diwan Singh, the governor of Multan.

Timur Shah, successor of Ahmad Shah, on the throne of Kabul, was determined to recover his lost territories in the Punjab. He sent his general, Faizullah Khan, to Peshawar to collect forces and attack the Punjab. He assembled a large force of the Afghans, particularly from the Khyber tribes with the avowed object of punishing the Sikhs but entered into a secret conspiracy with Mian Muhammad, son of Sheikh Omar of Chamkanni, a sworn enemy of Timur Shah, to kill the Shah. He marched his forces to the fort of Peshawar on the pretext of parading his troops before the Shah. But on reaching the fort they cut to pieces the Shah’s guards at the gate and forced their entry into the fort. The Shah went to the upper story of the palace and conveyed to his personal body-guards the seriousness of the situation. Shah’s body-guards and the Durranis attacked Faizullah’s men and there ensued terrible slaughter. Faizullah and his son were also tortured to death.45

Now, Timur Shah decided to take vigorous steps in regard to Sind, Bahawalpur and the lower Punjab. In 1777-78, he sent two detachments of the Afghan troops to drive out the Sikhs from Multan but with no success. The Afghans were beaten back with heavy loss and Haini Khan, the commander of the expedition, was tied to a gun and blown off by the Sikhs.46 But in the end of 1779, the operations of the Shah against Multan were successful. The Shah’s troops, numbering 18,000, consisting of the Yusafzais, Durranis, Mughals and Kazalbashes, were under the command of Zangi Khan, the Durrani chief. The Sikhs were said to have suffered heavy casualties with 3,000, as killed in the battle-field and 2,000, drowned in the course of crossing the river. After the victory over Multan, it was placed under the governorship of Shujah Khan, father of Muzaffar Khan. The Shah subdued Bahawal Khan, the Abassi chief of Bahawalpur.47

The decline of the Misal started earlier, continued under Desu Singh. Some places got out of his control but be continued receiving revenue to the tune of fifty thousand rupees annually from the Sials.48

Desu Singh was not on good terms with Mahan Singh of Sukharchakia Misal which was now becoming very powerful. There were occasional skirmishes between the troops of Desu Singh and Mahan Singh. The stars of the Sukarchakias were on the ascendant in those days. Desu Singh could not add any territories to his Misal, rather he lost Pindi Bhatian, Sahiwal, Bhera, Isa Khel, Jhang and Takht Hazara to Mahan Singh Sukarchakia and a part of Kasur and some other areas passed into the hands of Nizam-ud-Din Khan of Kasur.49

In 1782, Desu Singh marched to reduce Chiniot and had many skirmishes with the Sukarchakia chief, Mahan Singh. He died in action in the same year. He held the chiefship of the Misal for eight years.50

Gulab Singh

Desu Singh was succeeded by his minor son, Gulab Singh, who looked after the affairs of the Misal with the help of his cousin, Karam Singh Dulu. Gulab Singh enlarged the city of Amritsar where he lived.51 During the period of his minority Karam Singh worked as the administrator of Amritsar and on coming of age Gulab Singh dismissed him.52 A little later, Gulab Singh conquered the Pathan colony of Kasur and Nizam-ud-Din Khan and Kutb-ud-Din joined the service of the conqueror. In 1794, the Afghan brothers recovered Kasur with the help of their countrymen. Gulab Singh, despite his repeated attempts, could not expel the Afghans. He was a weak man and did not possess influence and energy sufficient to keep together the possessions which his father had left for him. Year by year these territories diminished, till at last, the town of Amritsar and some villages including Kuhali, Majitha, Naushehra and Sarhali in the Majha alone remained in his hands.53 Even the revenue accruing from the Sials got alienated.54 He had only to live on the income from the city of Amritsar and a few villages.

Ranjit Singh occupied Lahore in July 1799. His successes were creating alarm in the minds of the Punjab chiefs. Gulab Singh called all his Misaldars and supporters to fight against Ranjit Singh. Consequently, an alliance or a cabal was formed with Jassa Singh Ramgarhia, Nizam-ud-Din of Kasur, Sahib Singh and Gulab Singh Bhangi as its members, the last being the leading man behind the whole plan.55 In 1800, the allies collected their forces at the village of Bhasin, twelve kos east of Lahore. Ranjit Singh also advanced and encamped his forces opposite to his enemies. After a minor skirmish the contending armies stood apart waiting for a bigger clash. For some months the things lingered on and none could take initiative in attacking the other. In the meantime mutual jealousies developed in the camp of Gulab Singh. In the midst of confusion Gulab Singh died of excessive indulgence in drinking.56

The allies dispersed forthwith, without fighting against Ranjit Singh. It was indeed a great political and psychological victory for Ranjit Singh who now found himself clearly on road to monarchy in the Punjab. The constituent chiefs of the alliance, thus dispersed, could not meet again to challenge Ranjit Singh’s power.

Gurdit Singh

After the death of Gulab Singh his ten -year old son, Gurdit Singh, succeeded him. The Misal was on its downward march and the new ruler was in a helpless condition. Gurdit Singh was married to the daughters of Sahib Singh Bhangi and Fateh Singh Kanaihya.57

The gun, called zamzama, had been taken away by Charhat Singh Sukarchakia from Lehna Singh Bhangi. For some time it remained lying at Ramnagar. When Jhanda Singh Bhangi came back from Multan he removed the gun to his place. Since then the gun remained in the possession of the Bhangis.58

At this time, Maharaja Ranjit Singh demanded the famous zamzama gun from Gurdit Singh whose mother Sukhan flatly refused to part with it as its possession had assured glory and prestige to the Misal.59Mai Sukhan got prepared to fight against Ranjit Singh. Jodh Singh Ramgarhia sent a secret reinforcement to Sukhan to the tune of three hundred soldiers. At the same time he advised her that either she should hand over the zamzama gun to the Sukarchakia chief and purchase peace or destroy the gun. Mai Sukhan did not accept either of the suggestions and decided to face Ranjit Singh. The Lahore chief, accompanied by his mother-in-law, Sada Kaur, and Fateh Singh Ahluwalia, marched upon Amritsar and besieged the town.60 When the opposing forces were at the point of coming to a severe clash Jodh Singh Ramgarhia and Akali Phula Singh came in between them. Mai Sukhan surrendered without much opposition.61 On the advice of the Ramgarhia chief and the Akali leader the fort and the city of Amritsar were evacuated by Mai Sukhan on 14 Phagun, 1861 BK (February 24, 1805).62Mai Sukhan and her son remained under the protection of the Ramgarhia chief for some time. Then, on the recommendation of the Ramgarhia chief Mai Sukhan and her son Gurdit Singh were granted Panjore and five or six villages in jagir for their subsistence.63

The top-i-Bhangian was taken by Ranjit Singh to Lahore and is still lying there. It was manufactured in 1761, by Shah Nazir, a famous mechanic, for Ahmad Shah Abdali. It was composed of brass and copper. Ahmad Shah had left it in the possession of Ubaid Khan, governor of Lahore. In 1762, when Hari Singh Bhangi and the other Sardars plundered the arsenal of the governor of Lahore, they also took away the gun. Ranjit Singh used it in the battles of Daska, Kasur, Sujanpur, Wazirabad and Multan.

Gurdit Singh died at his ancestral village of Panjwar in the Tarn Taran pargana of Amritsar district where his descendants, later, lived as simple peasants.

Besides the main House of the Bhangi Misal, there were some Misaldars also who had risen to prominent positions. As mentioned earlier the Sardars of the Misal bestowed a number of villages on their comrades-in-arms who had assisted them in carving out their Misals. These Misaldars, sometimes, by sheer dint of their arms, became as strong in their respective areas as the Sardars of the Misals themselves. The Bhangi Sardars had as their powerful associates in the persons of Lehna Singh, Gujjar Singh and Sahib Singh who always stood by them. These men are also known to history as Bhangis.

Lehna Singh

Lehna Singh’s grandfather was a zamindar of minor consequence. He, in the time of scarcity, left his native village of Sadhawala in the Amritsar district for Mastapur near Kartarpur in the Jalandhar Doab.64 He belonged to the Kahlon sub-caste of the Jats.65 Lehna Singh, the son of Dargaha, was a high-spirited youngman. Once he was beaten by his father for allowing cattle to stray into the green fields. He ran away from home and, after wandering for some time, reached the village of Roranwala, one mile from Attari, where a Bhangi Misaldar Gurbakhsh Singh lived.66 This man was one of the best warriors under Hari Singh Bhangi. He owned about forty villages and helped Hari Singh to maintain law and order in his territory with a band of his horsemen. Gurbakhsh Singh took a fancy to young Lehna Singh and enlisted him among his horsemen and later, having no male issue of his own, adopted him.67 Gurbakhsh Singh died in 1763, and dissensions arose between Lehna Singh, the adopted son, and Gujjar Singh, the son of Gurbakhsh Singh’s brother,68 each claiming the property.69

Jhanda Singh and Ganda Singh came to Vanyeki to settle their dispute but Gujjar Singh was not prepared to listen to the terms of settlement and set out with his followers for Roranwala. Lehna Singh pursued and came up with him. There was a fight between the followers of the two which resulted in the death of a few men on either side. At last the estate was divided by Lehna Singh and Gujjar Singh. The former kept Roranwala and the latter founded a new village between Bharwal and Ranni, which he called Ranghar, in remembrance of his fight with Lehna Singh, with whom he now became the fast friend.70

When Ahmad Shah Abdali left India he appointed a Hindu, named Kabuli Mal, as the governor of Lahore.71 The governor was a timid and, at the same time, a tyrannical man. Lehna Singh and Gujjar Singh formed a design to expel Ahmad Shah’s representative from Lahore and capture the city for themselves. When Kabuli Mal obtained secret intelligence of the Bhangi plot he fled from Lahore, leaving it in charge of his nephew (sister’s son), Amir Singh (or Amar Singh). Kabuli Mal plundered the city before leaving it. He took road to Jammu and on the way he was roughly handled by some of the persons who had left Lahore because of his tyranny. He would probably have been killed, had not some troops, sent by Raja Ranjit Deo as his escort, saved him.72 The Raja sent him to Rawalpindi where Ahmad Shah’s rearguard had halted and there he died shortly afterwards.

Lehna Singh and Gujjar Singh collected their men and decided to surprise Lahore. Bhaia Nand Ram Purbia, who was the thanedar of Lahore fort and who had been hostile to Kabuli Mal, secretly joined with the Bhangi chiefs. He sent a message to the Sikh Sardars through Dyal Singh that entry into the city by the gates was doubtful and they were asked to enter at night by causing a breach in the wall at a specific point. The Bhangi chiefs agreed and they did likewise73 and before morning the whole city was in their possession. The occupation of Lahore took place on April 16, 1765. Amir Singh, the deputy governor, was captured and put in irons. Early next day Sobha Singh Kanaihya, nephew (brother’s son) of Jai Singh Kanaihya, arrived.74 He had been, since the last Afghan invasion, staying at his native village Kanah. Though he was late to participate in capturing the city, he was allowed to share the prize. Then came the other chiefs of the Bhangis, Kanaihyas, Sukarchakias, etc. But Charhat Singh Sukarchakia would not go away without having got the zamzama gun from the Bhangis, which he carried to Gujranwala, The three chiefs then divided Lahore amongst them.75 Lehna Singh took the fort with the Masti, Khizri, Kashmiri and Roshani gates. Gujjar Singh built for himself a fort without the walls, which he called Qila Gujjar Singh.76 On the request of a deputation of grandees of the town, the Sardars issued a proclamation that persons who oppressed the people would be severely dealt with. The plundering of the town was stopped forthwith. They took to administering it whole-heartedly.77

Lehna Singh and Sobha Singh remained in Lahore in peace till Ahmad Shah Abdali made his final descent upon the Punjab in December 1766, when they retired from Lahore.78 But the Afghan ruler feeling the infirmity and old age creeping upon him and having no such general as should successfully deal with the Sikh chiefs, decided to, conciliate them. A deputation of the prominent persons of Lahore, then, waited upon Ahmad Shah Abdali and told him that Lehna Singh was good ruler and was sympathetic towards his subjects. He made no distinction between Hindus and Muslims. He bestowed turbans on the qazis, muftis and imams of the mosques on the festival of idul- zuha.79 The Muslims of Lahore had no fear of the Khalsa, said the deputationists, and they had started looking upon them as their comrades rather than hostile enemies. This happy circumstance, said they, had made the Muslim leaders of Lahore recommend to Ahmad Shah the appointment of Sardar Lehna Singh, as their governor, in preference to a Muslim nominee of his.  Ahmad Shah wrote to Lehna Singh offering him the governorship of Lahore and sent him some dry fruit of Kabul. Lehna Singh declined the offer saying that to accept an offer from an invader was against the policy of his community and returned the fruit saying that it was not his food as he lived on parched grams.80

Ahmad Shah speedily returned to his country leaving the whole of the territory of the Punjab in the hands of the Sikhs. After Ahmad Shah’s departure Gujjar Singh, Lehna Singh and Sobha Singh marched towards Lahore.81 The nobles of Dadan Khan, the new governor of Lahore, told him plainly that the people were satisfied with the Sikh rule and they might open the city gates and admit the Sikh chiefs into the town. Dadan Khan, therefore, on the advice of his friends, met the Sikh Sardars who treated him with respect and consideration and granted him a daily allowance of twenty rupees and occupied Lahore.82

For the next thirty years the Bhangi and Kanaihya Sardars remained in possession of Lahore till 1797, when Shah Zaman, who had succeeded to the throne of Kabul, invaded the Punjab and Lehna Singh again retired from Lahore. On account of the goodness of his heart, the people of the town invited Lehna Singh to come and shoulder the administration of the place after the departure of the Shah. He came and died the same year.83 Sobha Singh also died the same year and was succeeded by his son, Mohar Singh, while Chet Singh succeeded to Lehna Singh.

Gujjar Singh

Much has been said about Gujjar Singh in the account of Lehna Singh. He was more successful and much more powerful than Lehna Singh or Sobha Singh. Independent of his above said comrades he first occupied Gujrat which was then held by Sultan Mukarrab, a Ghakhar chief. According to Ganesh Das Badehra, Mukarrab was besieged in the town of Gujrat. The fighting raged for a few days. Finding himself insecure in the fortress he came out and recruited a number of citizens of Gujrat in his farce. He, then, tried to escape to some safe place and planned to flee towards Pothohar. He had hardly covered a distance of half a kos from the town when he was surrounded by the Khalsa army. Sultan Mukarrab, riding an elephant, tried to cross a rivulet adjacent to the village of Gheduwal. When the elephant crossed over to the other side it was without its rider. Nothing was later heard about the Sultan84 and in all probability he was washed away. It is said that the town of Gujrat was given to plunder and its inhabitants went away to different places as Jalalpur, Shadipur, Akhnur, etc. A few days later Gujjar Singh reached Gujrat and repopulated the town and since then he firmly established himself there. Charhat Singh Sukarchakia got the fort of Kunjah and the areas upto Miani. The town of Kunjah was given to Sardar Mal Singh and the areas of Kalra and Kuthala were assigned to Sardar Himmat Singh and similarly other Sikh leaders occupied some other territories there.85 Gujjar Singh made Gujrat his capital and next year, i.e., in 1766, he marched to Jammu, which he overran and held tributary with Jhanda Singh Bhangi and then successfully reduced Punchh, Islamgarh, and Deva Batala.86 In 1767, Ahmad Shah made his last invasion of India. Gujjar Singh was obliged to leave Gujrat. He went to Lahore and thence, as Ahmad Shah advanced to Firozepur, and on the Durrani chief’s finally turning his back on the Punjab, he received back his part of the city of Lahore. According to Ganesh Das Badehra, during this invasion Ahmad Shah had occupied areas up to the villages of Daudpur, Patala, Sohian and the areas of Kunjah. Because of their incapacity to contend with the heavy hordes of Ahmed Shah the Sikhs desisted from confrontation. When Gujjar Singh and Charhat Singh were in the Majha area, Nawab Sarbuland Khan, a relative of Ahmad Shah, occupied Rohtas and launched upon a career of conquest He took possession of Gujrat. Rehmat Khan Waraich, Chaudhari of the pargana of Herat, and the qanungos of Gujrat went to Rohtas obviously to make an appeal to Sarbuland Khan to restore Gujrat and the adjoining areas to their Sikh masters. They were imprisoned and Chaudhari Rehmat Khan and Diwan Shiv Nath were done to death on the allegation that it was due to them that the Sikhs bad occupied Gujrat.

In the meantime Charhat Singh and Gujjar Singh took a firm resolve that unless the Nawab of Rohtas was not driven out of his possessions they would not be able to set-up their principalities. In order to cement his relations with Gujjar Singh, Charhat Singh engaged his daughter with Gujjar Singh’s son. Sahib Singh. Having thus concluded a matrimonial alliance, the two Sardars recrossed river Chenab with a view to fighting against the Nawab of Rohtas. The Nawab’s forces, after some initial skirmishes with the Sikhs and defeat at their hands, took asylum in the fort of Rohtas. The Khalsa army besieged the fort and the inmates, including the Nawab, were made prisoners after about four months time. The fort of Rohtas was captured in 1770. The territories of Rohtas, Dhan Baloki, Ghebb and Mukhad fell to the lot of Charhat Singh and the talluqas of Wangal, Bharwal, Pindi Rawal and Khanpur, up to the boundary of river Attock, were annexed by Gujjar Singh. But Gujjar Singh gave Rawalpindi to Milkha Singh as a jagir and tapa of Narli and the fortress of Rutala were conferred upon his brother Chet Singh. Ran Singh Pidah was appointed tapadar in Sarai Kala and Jodh Singh Attariwala was made the thanedar of (the fort of) Kalar and a tehsildar or collector of Pothohar.87

For the defence of the holy city of Amritsar Gujjar Singh laid the foundation of Qila Gujjar Singh. Charhat Singh Sukarchakia also built a fort to the north of the Durbar Sahib, while that of Jassa Singh Ramgarhia lay to the east and that of the Bhangis to the south. Gujjar Singh married his eldest son, Sukha Singh, to the daughter of Bhag Singh Hallowalia. He married his second son, Sahib Singh, to a daughter of Charhat Singh.

Gujjar Singh divided his territories between his two elder sons, Sukha Singh and Sahib Singh and the youngest son, Fateh Singh, was left out. Sukha Singh and Sahib Singh quarrelled and fought88 and the younger (Sahib Singh), at the instigation of Mahan Singh Sukarchakia, attacked his elder brother who was killed in the action. Gujjar Singh was much enraged when he heard of the death of his eldest son. He decided to dispossess Sahib Singh of all the territories under his charge. Sahib Singh openly revolted against his father and shut himself up in Islamgarh. But Gujjar Singh did not wish to proceed to extremities and forgave his son the moment he showed a disposition to sue for pardon. Sahib Singh was confirmed in his old possessions and Gujjar Singh made over those which had been held by Sukha Singh to his younger brother Fateh Singh.89 Another cause of displeasure between Gujjar Singh and his son, Sahib Singh, cropped up. Mahan Singh Sukarchakia was besieging Rasulnagar, the capital of his enemies, the Chathas. A principal officer of the Chathas, escaping from the town, took shelter in Gujjar Singh’s camp. Mahan Singh asked for his surrender which was refused. In order to oblige his brother-in-law, Sahib Singh banded over the demanded person to the Sukarchakia chief. Gujjar Singh felt very much annoyed with Sahib Singh’s conduct. It so deeply preyed upon his mind that he fell ill. He retired to Lahore where he died in 1788.90 His tomb is situated near the Samman Burj. He ruled his territory for twenty four years.91

Sahib Singh

Despite the utter displeasure of his father, Sahib Singh took possession of the family estates without active opposition from his younger brother, Fateh Singh, who went to Gujranwala to live with Mahan Singh. For some time there was peace between the brothers-in-law, Mahan Singh and Sahib Singh. Shortly thereafter, Mahan Singh demanded haq-i-hakmana or succession money or tribute from Sahib Singh who refused to give any. The famous maxim that “kingship knows no kinship” so aptly applied to the situation. To promote the interests of one’s principality even close- blood relationship was disregarded. Sahib Singh was the husband of Mahan Singh’s real sister. In 1789, they quarrelled and remained in constant hostility for some time. At last in 1790, Mahan Singh besieged Sahib Singh in the fort of Sodhra and reduced him to great straits.92 Sahib Singh sought the help of Lehna Singh of Lahore and Karam Singh Dulu. Lehna Singh did not move but Karam Singh came with a large force. There was some fighting but the Sukarchakia chief was not keeping good health at this time. When Mahan Singh put Sahib Singh in a tight corner at Sodhra the former’s sister (Raj Kaur), who was the latter’s wife, came to see her brother and sue for peace. The meeting could not take place as due to ill-health Mahan Singh had fainted on the elephant outside Sodhra and the mahabat had turned back and carried his master to Gujranwala where he died three days later on the 5th Baisakh, 1847 BK., April 15, 1790.93 He had deeply taken to mind the desertion of his old friend, Jodh Singh Wazirabadia.

In 1797, Shah Zaman invaded the Punjab and Sahib Singh was obliged to retire to the hills. The Shah remained only a few days in the Punjab and then returned to Afghanistan. According to Bute Shah the Shah left behind him an officer, named Ahmad Khan Shahanchi, with 8,000 Afghan troops. The Shahanchi forcibly took a Brahman. woman to his harem. There was wide resentment against him. Sahib Singh came back to Gujrat and marched against the Shahanchi. Sahib Singh, in collaboration with Nihal Singh and Wazir Singh Attariwala, Jodh Singh Wazirabadia and Karam Singh Dulu, completely defeated the Afghan forces, killing the Shahanchi. The Sikhs plundered the Afghan camp and Sahib Singh gathered huge booty.94

Since Sahib Singh was very humble and docile by disposition the Sikhs addressed him as if he were an effeminate character. But as he emerged victorious against the Afghans twice he began to be treated as a manly and masculine character.95

Zaman Shah, the ruler of Kabul, again marched to the Punjab in the beginning of the winter of 1798, and reached Lahore on November 27. The chiefs of Lahore left the town before the Shah entered it. Every night Ranjit Singh visited, with a few sawars, the suburbs of the city of Lahore and attacked the forces of the Shah at night with a view to harassing him.96 According to Sohan Lal Suri,97 Ranjit Singh, at this time, thrice rushed upon the Samman Burj of the Lahore fort with a few men, fired a number of shots, killed and wounded a number of Afgans, and on one occasion challenged the Shah himself to a hand to hand fight. ‘Come out you, O grandson of Ahmad Shah,” shouted Ranjit Singh to him, “and try two or three hands with the grandson of the great Sardar Charhat Singh.” But as there was no response from the other side Ranjit Singh had to retire without a trial of strength with the Durrani. At this time the Shah was receiving disquieting news from Qandhar and Herat. Under the circumstances he thought it proper to retire from the Punjab.

According to Ali-ud-Din Mufti, Zaman Shah left for Kabul after a month’s stay at Lahore as Mahmud Shah, in collaboration with Baba Qachar, had attacked Kabul. Diplomatically enough, Ranjit Singh did not harass Zaman Shah on his return march rather facilitated his return so that he might not get annoyed with him and think of hitting back at him at the pearliest opportunity. Since the Shah had to go back hurriedly 12 of his guns sank in river Jhelum, that was in spate because of rainy season. On the Shah’s request Ranjit Singh extricated all the 12 guns from the river. He despatched 8 of them to Kabul and retained the four with him in his arsenal, one of which was of iron and three of brass.98

Bhangis Lose Lahore

Twenty six days after Zaman Shah’s exit from Lahore, on January 4, 1799, the Bhangi Sardars reentered it. The three rulers of Lahore were not functioning in collaboration with one another. Their mutual dissensions adversely affected the law and order situation in the city. The people were feeling insecure and unhappy about the condition created by their rulers. Finding the situation in Lahore fluid, Nawab Nizam-ud-Din of Kasur started toying with the idea of possessing it. But in view of Ranjit Singh’s growing power the Nawab of Kasur was obliged to drop the idea of occupying Lahore. According to Ali-ud-Din Mufti some of the Arains of Lahore were imprisoned and deprived of their belongings by its rulers. They invited Nizam-ud-Din Khan to deliver them of the bondage. The Nawab got ready for Lahore but he shortly realised that it would not be possible for him to keep Lahore in his hands for long. So he did not dare to come.”99 According to Munshi Sohan Lal Suri, the people of Lahore were suffering hardships under the misrule of their chiefs.100 The respectable people of Lahore including the Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs met secretly and decided to address an invitation to Ranjit Singh to come to Lahore and arrange its occupation. Ranjit Singh accepted the invitation.101 The letter of invitation sent to him was signed by Muhammad Ashaq, Gurbakhsh Singh, Hakim Rai, Mufti Muhammad Mukarram, Muhammad Bakkar, Mir Shadi and Mehr Mohkam Din. It was sent through Hakim Rai.102

Ranjit Singh started from Rasulnagar, reached Batala and discussed the matter of occupation of Lahore with his mother-in-law. Rani Sada Kaur.103 She accompanied him to Lahore. They had, at their command, an army of about twenty five thousand horsemen and foot-soldiers. The people of Lahore had earlier promised Ranjit Singh to open the Lohari Gate at his arrival there. On the day Ranjit Singh reached Lahore, Lohari Gate could not be opened as it was strongly defended by Chet Singh. Ranjit Singh repaired to Wazir Khan’s garden and Anarkali’s mausoleum in the south of Lahore.104 He was told by the people who had invited him that he should come to Lohari Gate early next morning.

The rulers of Lahore were not aware of the intentions or plans of Ranjit Singh. Sweets were sent to Ranjit Singh by Mohar Singh—one of the chiefs of Lahore.105 In order to put them off their guard Ranjit Singh went to river Ravi in the evening and made arrangements for the boats to be available to him next morning.106 He just wanted to give an impression that he was on his way to Gujranwala. Next morning, that is, on July 6, 1799,107 he led his men to Lohari Gate which was opened unto him. He entered the city triumphantly. First, the victors repaired for the haveli of Lakhpat Rai where Sardar Mohar Singh, son of Sardar Sobha Singh Kanaihya, was residing.108 Mohar Singh fled from the haveli and concealed himself in the house of a hay-seller.109 Ranjit Singh entered the Badshahi Masjid adjoining the fort. His army started plundering the city but as soon as he came to know of it he announced with the beat of drum that complete peace should be restored in the town and people’s fears from his side should be put to rest and all the plunderers and robbers should keep their hands off the town.110

Mohar Singh was captured and produced before Ranjit Singh. He allowed him to proceed to his jagirs along with his goods.111 Chet Singh Bhangi, who was in possession of the fort of Lahore, continued exchanging fire from within the fort with Ranjit Singh’s men. On Sada Kaur’s suggestion negotiations were conducted and Chet Singh was asked to vacate the fort. He was offered to be treated kindly and permitted to take all his movable property with him to his jagir at Vanyeki (in the pargana of Ajanala) where he could live in peace and comfort.112 Chet Singh accepted the offer and evacuated the fort next morning, that is, on July 7, 1799 (29th of the month of Har, Samat 1856), and Ranjit Singh occupied the fort the same day.113 Chet Singh held the annual jagir of 60,000 rupees in Vanyeki till his death in 1815. He left no son by any of his eight wives, but four months after his death Hukam Kaur gave birth to a son, named Attar Singh, in favour of whom Ranjit Singh released an estate of 6,000 rupees at Vanyeki and the same was, afterwards, much reduced.114

Sahib Singh Bhangi was not in the town at the time of Ranjit Singh’s attack and occupation of Lahore. None of the contemporary or semi-contemporary writers including Khushwaqat Rai, Bute Shah, Amar Nath, Sohan Lal Suri, Ali-ud-Din Mufti and Ganesh Das Badehra had made a mention of him. In Ranjit Singh’s career the capture of Lahore was of the greatest significance and this possession made him the most powerful chieftain in northern India. Lahore had always been a provincial capital and it gave Ranjit Singh an edge over the other chiefs in the Punjab and enhanced his political prestige considerably at the cost of the Bhangis.

Sahib Singh’s brother, Fateh Singh Bhangi, joined Ranjit Singh and the latter got from the former the possession of Fatehgarh and Sodhra. When Sahib Singh heard of the fall of Lahore, he moved with a large force against Ranjit Singh. The Ramgarhias and the Kasur troops marched from the east and the south to Bhasin but nothing came out of that assemblage of forces. Fateh Singh became reconciled to his brother Sahib Singh but this friendship did not last long. Fateh Singh favoured Raj Kaur, wife of Sahib Singh, who, disgusted at her husband’s third marriage, held the fort of Jalalpur against him. Fateh Singh went back to Ranjit Singh who would not do anything for him as he had left the Maharaja in the middle of a campaign. Fateh Singh remained at Lahore in poverty for a year and then he was compelled to return to his brother at Gujrat who gave him Daulatnagar and other estates.115

In the later part of his life Fateh Singh was given to excessive drinking which sapped his energy. He quarreled with Nihal Singh Attariwala and his Diwan, Mohkam Chand, afterwards so celebrated a courtier of Ranjit Singh.

Bhangi Sardar Sahib Singh Gujrati and Dal Singh of Akalgarh started their preparations for an invasion of Lahore. Ranjit Singh got enraged and, accompanied by Sada Kaur, led ten thousand soldiers to Gujrat, in 1801. The Bhangis started firing from within the fort. Ranjit Singh had also carried 20 guns with him to Gujrat. Bhangis, finding themselves no match for Ranjit Singh, sued for peace through Baba Sahib Singh Bedi, and fighting was stopped.116

Although Sahib Singh accepted the overlordship of Ranjit Singh, he exercised great influence in his territories which had strong forts at Jalalpur, Manawar and Aslamgarh.117 He had a lot of wealth and war material also. About 1809, he developed strained relations with his son, Gulab Singh,118 who occupied a couple of forts against the wishes of his father. Ranjit Singh availed himself of this opportunity and, in the course of two or three months, he occupied the whole of Gujrat including the towns of Gujrat, Aslamgarh, Jalalpur, Manawar, Bajwat and Sodhra.119 Sahib Singh escaped to the hilly areas,120 and took refuge in Deva Batala.121 In 1810, when Ranjit Singh was engaged in the siege of Multan, Mai Lachmi, mother of Sahib Singh, proceeded thither and interceded for her son with such effect that the ilaqa of Bajwat, with an annual income of one lakh rupees, was released in his favour.122 This jagir was held by him till his death which took place in 1814. His mausoleum was built at Bajwat.123 Sahib Singh ruled Gujrat for a period of twenty two years.124 Ranjit Singh took two of Sahib Singh’s widows, Daya Kaur and Rattan Kaur, into his harem, marrying them by the ceremony of chadar pauna, Daya Kaur was the mother of Princes Peshaura Singh and Kashmira Singh and Rattan Kaur was the mother of Multana Singh.125 Faqir Aziz-ud-Din was appointed to look after the administration of Gujrai126 and he was succeeded by Faqir Nur-ud- Din.

Fateh Singh Gujratia, after the death of his brother, went to Kapurthala where he remained in the service of the Ahluwalia chief127 for two years till, on the death of his mother Mai Lachmi, he received a grant of Rangher and some other villages in the Amritsar district. He entered the service of Sham Singh Attariwala, in whose contingent he served for many years. He was killed in Bannu in 1832, during the siege of the fort of Malik Dilasah Khan. About the same time Sahib Singh’s son, Gulab Singh, also died and his jagirs were resumed.128 Fateh Singh’s son, Jaimal Singh, was, for some time, in Sham Singh Attariwala’s force and served on the frontier and at Peshawar. Through his enmity with Sham Singh he lost his jagir. When the British occupied the Punjab Jaimal Singh, was in great poverty. This representative of the great Bhangi house, which possessed more power and ruled over a larger territory than any other family between the Satluj and the Indus, lived without pension or estate.129

Notes and References

  1. Ahmad Shah Batalia, Appendix to Sohan Lal Suri’s Umdat-ut-Tawarikh. Daftar I, Lahore, 1X85, p. 15; Bute Shahs Tawarikh-i-Punjab, Daftar IV, (1848), (MS., Ganda Singh’s personal collection. Patiala), p. 6; Kanaihya Lal, Tarikh-i-Punjab, Lahore, 1877, p. 88; Ali-ud-Din Mufti, Ibratnama, Vol. I, (1854), Lahore, 1961, p. 244. Muhammad Latif, History of the Punjab (1891), Delhi, 1964, p. 296.
  2. Ahmad Shah Batalia, op. cit., p. 15; Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 6.
  3. Kanaihya Lal, op. cit., p. 89.
  4. Ahmad Shah Batalia, op. cit., p. 15; Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 6; Kanaihya Lal, op. cit., p. 89; Ali-ud- Din Mufti, op. cit., pp. 244-45; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 298.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Ali-ud-Din Mufti, op. cit., p. 245; Kanaibya Lal, op. cit., p. 89.
  7. Rattan Singh Bhangu, Prachin Panth Parkash (1841), Amritsar, 1939, p. 199; Kanaihya Lal, op. cit., p. 89.
  8. Ahmad Shah Batalia, op. cit., p. 15; Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 6.
  9. Ahmad Shah Batalia, op. cit., p. 15; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., Calcutta, 1891, p. 296.
  10. Lepel Griffin, The Punjab Chiefs. Lahore, 1865, pp. 385-86.
  11. Ibid., p. 385.
  12. Muhammad Latif. op. cit; p. 296.
  13. Ahmad Shah Batalia, op. cit., p. 15; Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 6.
  14. Ibid.
  15. Ibid.
  16. Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 10.
  17. Ibid.
  18. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 386; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., pp. 296-97; cf., Ahmad Shah Batalia, op. cit., p. 15; Bute Shah. op. cit., pp. 7, 10; Ali-ud-Din Mufti, op. cit., I, p. 246.
  19. Bute Shah, op, cit., p. 10.
  20. Ibid.
  21. Muhammad Latif, op. cit., (ed. 1964), pp. 296-97; Gian Singh, Tawarikh Guru Khalsa, Part II, reprint, Patiala, 1970, p. 227.
  22. According to Bute Shah, Jhanda Singh was one of the illustrious followers of Hari Singh Bhangi. He was a Dhillon Jat of Majitha village. (Tawarikh-i-Punjab, IV, p. 10.)
  23. Ahmad Shah Batalia, op. cit., p. 16; Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 7; Cunningham, A History of the Sikhs (1849), Delhi, 1955, p. 103.
  24. Bute Shah, op. cit., pp. 10-11; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 386; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 285; Gian Singh, op. cit., part II, p. 228.
  25. Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 11.
  26. Ahmed Shah Batalia, op. cit., pp. 15-16; Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 7; cf., Haqiqat-i-bina-o-uruj-i-firqa-i- Sikhan, MS., PUP., p. 31; M’Gregor, The History of the Sikhs, I (1846), Allahabad reprint, 1979, p. 122.
  27. Lepel Griffin, op. cit; p. 386.
  28. Ibid.
  29. Ibid; p. 387.
  30. Ibid., op. cit., p. 387.
  31. Ahmad Shah Batalia, op. cit., p. 16; Haqiqat-i-bina-o-uruj-i-firqa-i-Sikhan, MS., PUP., p. 21; Bute Shah, op. cit., pp. 7, 11; Ganesh Das Badehra, Char Bagh-i-Punjab (1855), Amritsar, 1965, p. 132; Ali-ud-Din Mufti, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 248; M’Gregor, op. cit., I, pp. 122-23; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 387, Muhammad Latif, op. cit., ed. 1916, p. 86.
  32. Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 86.
  33. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 387.
  34. Ali-ud.Din Mufti, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 246; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 387.
  35. Ibid.
  36. Ali-ud-Din Mufti, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 247; cf., Ahmad Shah Batalia, op. cit., p. 16; M’Gregor, op. cit., I, p. 123.
  37. Gian Singh, op. cit., part II, p. 228.
  38. Bute Shah, incorrectly believes that Jhanda Singh ruled for fifteen years (op. cit., p. 14).
  39. Ahmad Shah Batalia, op. cit., p. 16; M’Gregor, op. cit., I, p. 123.
  40. Ahmad Shah Batalia, op. cit., p. 16; cf., Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, pp. 14, 40; cf., Ali-ud-Din Mufti, op. cit., Vol. 1, p. 250; M’Gregor, op. cit; I, pp. 123-24; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 338-39.
  41. Bute Shah wrongly writes that Ganda Singh ruled for ten years, op. cit., IV, p. 14.
  42. Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 14; Ahmad Shah Batalia, op. cit., p. 16; M’Gregor, op. cit., I, p. 124; Bute Shah writes that Desu Singh was Ganda Singh’s son and Charhat Singh was his nephew (Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 10).
  43. Ahmad Shah Batalia, Appendix, op. cif., p. 16.
  44. Ibid.
  45. Tarikh-i-Ahmadi, p. 19, cited by S.M. Latif, History of the Punjab, (1891), p. 299.
  46. Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 299.
  47. Ibid.
  48. Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 15.
  49. Ali-ud-Din Mufti, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 251.
  50. Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 15; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 389.
  51. Ahmad Shah Batalia, Appendix, op. cit., p. 16.
  52. Ibid.
  53. Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 15; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 231.
  54. Ibid., Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 390; Gian Singh, op. cif., p. 231.
  55. Ahmad Shah Batalia, op. cit., p. 16; Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 16.
  56. Khushwaqat Rai, Tawarikh-i-Sikhan (1811), (MS., Dr Ganda Singh private collection, Patiala), pp. 82a-b; Bute Shah; op. cit., IV, p. 16; Ganesh Das Badehra, op. cit., p. 142; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 390. According to Ahmad Shah Batalia, Gulab Singh fell ill at Bhasin. He came back to Amritsar where he passed away (op. cit., pp. 16-17); cf., Ali-ud-Din Mufti, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 404.
  57. Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 16; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 390.
  58. Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 16.
  59. Ibid., Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 390.
  60. Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, pp. 16-17.
  61. Ali-ud-Din Mufti, op. cit., I, p. 404; Ganesh Das Badehra, op. cit., p. 146; Khushwaqat Rai, op. cit., f. 142.
  62. Sohan Lal Suri, op. cit., II, pp. 56-57. The date of occupation of Amritsar by Ranjit Singh has been given differently by different authors. According to Ali-ud-Din-Mufti, (op. cit., Vol. I, p. 404) and Ganesh Das Badehra (op. cit., p. 146), Ranjit Singh conquered Amritsar in 1803, and according to Amar Nath, the occupation of Amritsar took place in 1802 (Zafarnama-i-Ranjit Singh, (1836), Lahore, 1928, p. 27). Though these three writers had the privilege of being Ranjit Singh’s contemporaries their dates of the occupation of Amritsar do not seem to be correct. In this regard Sohan Lal Suri is accepted to be correct.
  63. Sohan Lal Suri, op. cit., II, p. 57; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 359.
  64. Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 17; cf., Ali-ud-Din Mufti, op. cit., I, p. 207.
  65. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 391; cf., Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 17.
  66. Bute Shah. op. cit., p. 17.
  67. Ibid.
  68. Ahmad Shah Batalia, op. cit., p. 85; Bute Shah, op. cit; p. 19; Lepel Griffin and Muhammad Latif write Gujjar Singh to be the son of Gurbakhsh Singh’s daughter.
  69. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 391.
  70. Ibid., Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 18.
  71. Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 18; Ali-ud-Din Mufti, op. cit,. Vol. I, p. 255; Sohan Lal Suri, op. cit., I, p. 165; Ahmad Shah Batalia, op. cit., p. 15., Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 300.
  72. Sohan Lal Suri, op. cit; I, p. 164; Mohammad Latif, op. cit., p, 300.
  73. Ali-ud-Din Mufti, op. cit., p. 255; Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 18.
  74. Ibid., pp. 237-38; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 217.
  75. Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 18; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 300.
  76. Lepel Griffin op. cit., p. 392.
  77. Ali-ud-Din Mufti, op. cit., p. 239; Sohan Lal Suri, op. cit., I, pp. 163-64; Mian Ahmed Yar Maulvi, Shahnama-i-Ranjit Singh (ed. Ganda Singh), Amritsar, 1951, p. 52.
  78. Ali-ud-Din Mufti, op. cit., I, pp. 239-40.
  79. Ibid., p. 240; cf., Khushwaqat Rai, op. cit., p. 85.
  80. Ali-ud-Din Mufti, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 240.
  81. Ibid., pp. 240-41; Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 18.
  82. Ibid., cf., Sohan Lal Sun, op. cit., I, p. 165.
  83. Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 18; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., ed. Lahore, 1916, p. 93.
  84. Ganesh Das Badehra, op. cit., pp. 129-30.
  85. Ibid., p. 130.
  86. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 394.
  87. Ganesh Das Badehra, op. cit., pp. 130-31.
  88. Ahmad Shah Batalia, op. cit., p. 17.
  89. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 395.
  90. Ibid., p. 396; Ganesh Das, op. cit., p. 133.
  91. Ganesh Das Badehra, op. cit., p. 133.
  92. Sohan Lal Suri, op. cit., II, p. 27; Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 16.
  93. Sohan Lal Suri, op. cit., II, p. 28; Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 17; cf., Ahmad Shah Batalia, op. cit., p. 17.
  94. Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 20; Ganesh Das Badehra, op. cit., pp. 133-34.
  95. Ganesh Das Badehra, op. cit., p. 133.
  96. Sohan Lal Suri, op. cit., II, p. 39; Ganesh Das Badehra, op. cit., p. 140.
  97. Ibid., cf., Bute Shah, IV, op. cit., p. 22; Ganesh Das, op. cit., p. 140.
  98. Ali-ud-Din Mufti, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 397.
  99. Ibid., op. cit; pp. 397-98.
  100. Sohan Lal Suri, op. cit., II, p. 40; cf., Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 22.
  101. Ibid.
  102. Ibid., p. 41; Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 23; Muhammad Latif. op. cit., p. 349.
  103. Ibid.; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 349; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 290.
  104. Ibid; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 290; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 350.
  105. Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 23.
  106. Ibid.
  107. Ibid, p. 24.
  108. Ali-ud-Din Mufti, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 400.
  109. Sohan Lal Suri, op. cit., II, p. 42; Ali-ud-Din Mufti, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 400.
  110. Sohan Lal Suri, op. cit., II, pp. 42-43.
  111. Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 19.
  112. Sohan Lal Suri, op. cit., II, p. 43; Bute Shah, op. cit., p. 19; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 350-51; Gian Singh, op. cit., p. 291.
  113. Ibid., pp. 42-43.
  114. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 394.
  115. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 397.
  116. Sohan Lal Suri, op. cit., II, pp. 48-49; Ganesh Das, p. 163; Amar Nath, Zafar-nama-i-Ranjit Singh, p. 18.
  117. Sohan Lal Suri, op. cit., II, p. 95.
  118. Ganesh Das Badehra, op. cit., p. 152; Bute Shah, op. cit., IV, p. 21.
  119. Ibid., Ahmad Shah Batalia, op. cit., p. 17.
  120. Sohan Lal Suri, op. cit., II, pp. 100-01.
  121. Ganesh Das, op. cit., p. 152.
  122. Ahmad Shad Batalia, op. cit., p. 17; Bate Shah, op. cit., p. 21; Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 398; Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 306.
  123. Ganesh Das Badehra, op. cit., pp. 168-69.
  124. Ibid.
  125. Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 306.
  126. Ahmad Shah Batalia, op. cit., p. 34.
  127. Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 306.
  128. Lepel Griffin, op. cit., p. 98.
  129. Ibid., cf., Muhammad Latif, op. cit., p. 306.