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Struggle Over Peshawar and Sayyad Ahmad Bareilvi

Desire for Revenge

It has been mentioned earlier that Sardar Yar Mohammad Khan, ruler of Peshawar, had accepted the paramountcy of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and had signed a treaty for payment of heavy yearly tribute to the Lahore Darbar. Yar Mohammad's brother, Mohammad Azim Khan was Wazir of Kabul and was considered head of the Barakzai tribe. He could not reconcile with the idea that person of the lineage of his family should submit before the Sikhs. Therefore the idea of conquest of Peshawar’s by the Sikhs always remained a nightmare for him. Besides that, during those very days Maharaja Ranjit Singh had snatched the fertile and scenic valley of Kashmir from his other brother Jabbar Khan. His third brother Jahandar Khan had lost the fort of Attock to the Maharaja, not long back. Hence a strong desire for revenge was naturally raging in Azim Khan's mind, and he was on the look-out toengage in a decisive war against Ranjit Singh.

March to Peshawar

Azim Khan got the opportunity soon. During December 1823 A.D., the Maharaja demanded tribute from Yar Mohammad Khan, the governor of Peshawar who sent some beautiful horses to Lahore Darbar, but a particular horse demanded by the Maharaja was not sent.1 Even this action of Yar Mohd. Khan was not to the liking of his brother, Mohammad Azim Khan who marched from Kabul towards Peshawar at the head of a large army. Yar Muhammad Khan, at a hint from his brother, pretended that he was unable to face the Afghan army and after vacating Peshawar, he disappeared in the Yusafzai hills.2

Proclamation of Jehad

Mohammad Azim Khan occupied Peshawar without any difficulty,  and declaring war upon the Sikhs and gave a call for Jehad. Hundred of religious teachers and preachers spread out in the countryside to motivate the people to join the call of jehad with the result that Pathan tribals began to assemble under the standard of Mohammad Azim Khan. Within a few days twenty-five thousand crusaders gathered giving added strength and courage to Mohammad Azim Khan.

Preparations of Ranjit Singh

On the other side, Ranjit Singh too was not sitting idle. All these news were reaching him every moment. He at once dispatched two thousand horsemen under the command of Prince Sher Singh and Diwan Kirpa Ram to check the advance of the Afghans. After that another army division under Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa was despatched for the help of the Prince. Thereafter, the Maharaja himself set-out to march towards Peshawar along with Akali Phoola Singh, Sardar Desa Singh Majithia, Sardar Fateh Singh Ahluwalia, etc., with a strong army, and marching stage by stage, reached near Attock not long after.

Occupation of the fort of Jahangira

Even before the Maharaja's arrival, Prince Sher Singh and Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa had crossed river Attock by a boat bridge. They besieged the fort of Jahangira, occupied it after a minor encounter and established a post there. The Afghan fort-commander had to flee.

Afghan-Sikh Skirmish

Mohammad Azim Khan, who was still at Peshawar, was startled to listen the news of Maharaja’s occupation of the fort of Jahangira. He marched from Peshawar and reaching Nowshehra, dispatched an army of Ghazis under Dost Mohammad Khan and Jabbar Khan to fight against the Sikhs. The battle was fought near - the fort of Jahangira. Muhammad Zaman Khan, got an opportunity to destroy the boat bridge at Attock so that huge army led by the Maharaja himself might not cross the river and reach there.

River-crossing by the Maharaja

The Lion of Punjab was not the one to be deterred by such difficulties. He therefore encamped near the river-bank and started construction of the bridge afresh. Meanwhile information from across the river indicated that the Khalsa forces had been encircled by a huge formation of the Ghazis and that if the reinforcements did not reach in time, there was every danger of their being wiped out. This created confusion in the ranks of the Khalsa army. The boat bridge on the Attock could not be got ready immediately. Therefore, Ranjit Singh ordered his army to swim acorss the river. He himself rode a horse along with some of his chosen Chieftains and jumped into the fast-flowing river. The Khalsa army followed the suite and reached the other bank without much loss of life and luggage.

Flight of the Ghazis

On hearing the news of the Khalsa army having crossed the river, the Pathans became nervous, fled the field and reaching Nowshehra got busy with preparations for a pitched battle. The Maharaja first entrenched himself in the fort of Jahangira. Thereafter he strengthened the fort of Khairabad to protect his strategic bases and then encamped in the plain of Akorah. From there, he spread-out his intelligence men towards Nowshehra and Peshawar to collect information regarding the enemy positions.

Sardar Jai Singh Attariwala's Contrition

During the same night Sardar jai Singh Attariwala joined the Maharaja. The said Sardar had been taken as accused on suspicion in a plot during 1821 A.D., for which he had fled Punjab and had joined the Barakzais at Kabul, and during this period, he had come along with his horsemen on the side of Azim Khan. Seeing the war being fought along the religious lines, his feelings for the Sikh religious fraternity got aroused in his heart, and he left Azim Khan’s ranks and joined the Khalsa army. The Maharaja pardoned him and reinstated him in his former rank.3

War with Afghans

The Maharaja was still camping at Akorah when his intelligence men brought the news of the advance of Ghazis in great numbers at a great speed. They also said that Mohammad Azim Khan was likely to cross Landah river and join them on the following day. The Maharaja knew that the advent of Azim Khan would make the battle more difficult. Therefore, the Maharaja held consultations with his commanders. Since the deliberations were taking place in the evening, some of the commanders proposed that assault should take place on the following day. But General Ventura clearly assured the Maharaja that it would be better to start the fight without any loss of time.4 Soon the preparations for assault were started. The Sikh army was divided into three formations. The first brigade, which had eight hundred horsemen and seven hundred infantry soldiers; was placed under the command of Akali Phoola Singh to attack from a specified direction. The second brigade which comprised of the jagirdari forces of one thousand horsemen and three infantry battalions, commanded by Sardar Desa Singh Majithia and Sardar Fateh Singh Ahluwalia was ordered to keep ready to charge from the other side. The third brigade comprised of two thousand horsemen and eight infantry battalions. It was commanded by Prince Kharak Singh, Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa, General Allard and General Ventura. This brigade was assigned the task of intercepting Mohammad Azim Khan and preventing him from crossing Landah river and joining the Jehadis. The remaining cavalry and infantry was to remain with the Maharaja so that reinforcements could be sent wherever needed.

Maharaja's Wish

If the Pathans declared this war a Jehad in the name of their religion, the Maharaja too, considered it no less than a Dharam Yudh (religious war). Oblivious of the world and its appurtenances, he fully got busy with the affairs of war. He wanted to prove beyond doubt that the Lion of the Punjab and his army were in no way less than the Pathans in their religious zeal as well as the martial skills. When the bugle for march was sounded, the Maharaja himself seated on horse­back, stood on a high ground with unsheathed glittering sword in hand. The army squads passed in front of him one by one shouting impas­sioned slogans of Sat Sri Akal. The Maharaja, too, responded to the slogan in a thundering voice in order to encourage them.

Martyrdom of Akali Phoola Singh

Suddenly the two armies were face-to-face with each another. The Afghans and the Sikhs leapt-upon one another like ferocious wild tigers. A very fierce battle ensued. As usual, Akali Phoola Singh's squadron of Nihangs was the first to face the Ghazis. Suddenly Sardar Phoola Singh and his horse were hit by two bullets. As a result of which the horse died instantly; but the brave Phoola Singh without caring for his wounds rode an elephant and continued to advance further. During the concluding hours of his life, he displayed such feats of bravery that the Pathans began to tremble with fear. The Ghazis made Phoola Singh their prime target and every Pathan in the battle wished to earn the distinction of killing the Akali Chief alone. Therefore, in a way, the enemy force aimed the fire on Sardar Phoola Singh’s elephant. The bullets, which hit the brave Akali, one after the other, soon martyrized him in the battle field. The Maharaja suffered extreme grief at the death of Sardar Phoola Singh.5

Ghazis beaten Decisively

The Khalsa army got greatly excited, at the death of Akali Phoola Singh. They charged at the Ghazis with great force; but the Pathans too left no stone unturned to fight the Khalsa back. Hundreds of Sikh soldiers and officers were slain in this battle. At last the Pathans lost ground and started fleeing the field. Mohammad Azim Khan was witnessing all this, from across the river, but it was very difficult for him to cross the river, because on the bank opposite bank and right in front of him Maharaja's heavy artillery and army commanded by General Ventura and Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa; was standing firmly entrenched and they were raining such a heavy canon fire that it was impossible for Mohd. Azim Khan to advance even a single step. When Mohammad Azim Khan received the news of the flight of his Ghazis, all his hopes were dashed to the ground. He fled from there to Mochani. He was so disappointed about his failure to recapture Peshawar that he breathed his last even before he could reach Kabul.

The Effect of the Victory

The Sikh army went in hot pursuit of the Ghazis and captured all their tents, guns, horses and camels. Although the Khalsa army also suffered heavy losses, yet this glorious victory resulted in the Khalsa's occupation of the entire region from Jamrud to Malakand and from Baner to Khatak, and they created such an awe in the hearts of the Pathans that persists even to this day.

Maharaja's Entry into Peshawar

The Maharaja occupied the fort of Hashtnagar and entered Peshawar with great fanfare on March 17.6 Under the Maharaja's orders, it was proclaimed with the beat of drum that no plunder or atrocity of any kind was to be committed on the people of the city. The public enthusiastically welcomed the Maharaja and the rich ones offered Nazranas.7A few days later Yar Mohammad Khan and Dost Mohammad Khan, both the brothers, presented themselves before the Maharaja at Peshawar and made complete submission, presented fifty horses including the famous steed Gauharbar with other costly gifts, begged pardon for recalcitrance, requested for the the grant of Suba-i-Peshawar, and promised to pay any amount demanded as yearly tribute. The Lion of Punjab accepted these terms and after fixing one hundred and ten thousand as the amount of yearly tribute, appointed Yar Mohammad Khan as nazim of Peshawar, bestowed on him a very costly robe of honour, one elephant and a good horse, according to his rank, and having made all these important ar­rangements, he himself returned to Lahore on April 27, 1824 A.D where large-scale festivities and illuminations were held.8

Ramanand, the Banker - September 1823 A.D.

During September 1823 A.D., Maharaja got the news that Lala Ramanand, the famous banker of Amritsar had died. He was the same man with whom all accounts of the income and expenditure of Maharaja Ranjit Singh used to be kept prior to the organisation of government treasury and finance offices. He calmed direct access to the Maharaja and wielded enormous influence in the court of the Maharaja. This man was very thrifty and had accumulated huge amount of money during his life time. He had died without leaving an off-spring.9 Therefore the Maharaja left a part of his belongings and property with his nephew Shiv Dayal, and deposited the remaining about two million rupees in cash in the government treasury. It was later on spent for felling and repairing the city wall of Lahore.

Riots in Dera Ghazi Khan

At the end of Dussehra festival, the Maharaja turned his attention towards Dera Ghazi Khan. The chief of this place Sardar Asad Khan, was showing rebellious intentions and often defied the Nawab of Bahawalpur. Therefore the Maharaja crossed the river Indus with an army detachment and collected three hundred-thousand rupees from the rebellious chief as fine. Sardar Asad Khan had also to send his son to Lahore as hostage.

Death of Raja Sansar Chand Katoch

In December 1823 A.D., Raja Sansar Chand katoch died. The Maharaja bestowed on his son Anurodh Chand the title of rulership and received one hundred-thousand rupees as tribute. But he was not destined to sit on the throne of his father for long. The star of good fortune of Raja Dhian Singh of Jammu was in ascendance those days. He expressed his desire that his son Hira singh be married to the daughter of Raja Sansar Chand. The Maharaja forced Anurodh Chand to accept this matrimonial proposal. But the latter considered his lineage superior to the Dogra Rajputs of Jammu. Therefore, he and his mother did not agree to this proposal. Anurodh Chand, finding a chance, fled across the Sutlej along with his family and married both of his sisters to the Raja of Garhwal. The Maharaja occupied his territory, and himself married two other daughters of Raja Sansar Chand who had been bom to one Gulab Dasi; and gave a jagir worth one hundred thousand rupees to Sansar Chand's second son, Fateh Chand.

Death of Misr Diwan Chand -July 1825 A.D.

Misr Diwan Chand was a senior member of the Maharaja's Court who had distinguished himself for his services in the conquests of Multan, Kashmir and Mankera. He suddently got afflicted with the the painful disease of colitis and died on 5 Savan Sambat 1882 Bikrami corresponding to July 19, 1825 A.D. The Maharaja was greatly grieved at the death of this brave general. The Diwan's dead body was cremated with full state honours. The Maharaja had a very high opinion about Misr Diwan Chand and had kept him happy in every way.10

General Ventura's Marriage - 1824 A.D.

During the same year, General Ventura's marriage to an English woman took place at Ludhiana, which had been arranged by Captain Wade. The Maharaja on this occasion gave ten thousand rupees as wedding present (shagan). Another thirty thousand rupees were given by the nobility.

Sardar Fateh Singh Ahluwalia's Estrangement and Reconciliation 1826 to 1828

Sardar Fateh Singh Ahluwalia's Vakil Chaudhri Qadir Bakhsh, who was posted in Maharaja's Darbar, turned out to be a great mischief- monger. He, in collusion with the Sardar's special counsellor, Sher Ali Khan, started sending false reports from the Lahore Darbar to the Sardar. Sardar Fateh Singh fully trusted Sher Ali Khan and always acted in accordance with his advice. The Ahluwalia Sardar was informed by these two agents that the Maharaja wanted to occupy his territories soon, and that his life and property were in danger. That was and the reason he had been sent to the Cis-Sutlej region. There was not an iota of truth in these reports and the Sardar also had no reason to accept them as such. But the Maharaja had earlier treated many a chief in this way and only recently had established his sway over the possessions of Sardami Sada Kaur. Therefore, doubts entered the mind of Sardar Fateh Singh and he, inveigled by the trick of Qadir Bakhsh and Sher Ali Khan fled from Kapurthala along with his family and took refuge at Jagraon which was situated in the Cis-Sutlej territory. The British agent flatly refused to allow him to stay there, and also told him that his government did not intend to intercede in a case between him and the Maharaja. At this, Sardar Fateh Singh faced a great dilemma. The Maharaja was also annoyed and worried because he had no ill-will against the Ahluwalia Sardar in his heart. Therefore, the Maharaja opened negotiations with him and assured him that if he returned he would not be put to any harm. Thus Fateh Singh left Jagraon for Lahore. The Maharaja sent his grandson, Kanwar Nau Nihal Singh, to welcome him. When the Sardar presented himself in the Darbar, a strange and painful scene got enacted. Sardar Fateh Singh put his sword at the feet of the Maharaja and requested in an affectionate halting speech that he might be properly punished with his own sword for his misgivings. Absolute quiet, then prevailed in the Darbar. Maharaja Ranjit Singh also got emotional at this and tears began to flow from his eyes. He rose from the throne and em­braced the Sardar, put his sword in his scabbard and made him sit by his side. Instead of expressing anger, he gave him a costly robe and a decorated elephant there and then, and bestowed upon him the ruling rights over his former estate.11

Arrival of a British Doctor - July 1826

During July 1826, the Maharaja fell seriously ill. Therefore the British government offered the services of Dr. Murray. The Maharaja extended to him warm reception and hospitality. One hundred rupees was sanctioned by the Darbar for his daily expenses. Also thousands of Brahmins and hakims were employed for prayers and treatment according to native system. When the Maharaja recovered, thousands of rupees were distributed as alms.

Earthquake in Kashmir - 1827 A.D.

During 1827, a strong earthquake hit Kashmir valley as a result of which thousands of lives were lost, numerous houses were destroyed and thousands of people were rendered homeless and penniless. The nazim of Kashmir, Diwan Kirpa Ram submitted a detailed report to the Maharaja of the miserable plight of the people, and on his recommendation land revenue was reduced.12

Cholera Epidemic in Lahore

During the same year cholera broke out in an epidemic form in Lahore. Hundreds of people began to die daily. At that time the Maharaja issued orders to give free medicine to people from government dispensaries, and he helped the subjects in every way. Sardar Budh Singh Sandhanwalia also fell victim to this disease and died instantly.13

Sikh Mission in Shimla - 1827 A.D.

During that year Lord Amherst came from Calcutta [now Kolakata] to Shimla to spend summer season. Thereupon Maharaja Ranjit Singh sent Diwan Moti Ram and Faqir Aziz-ud-Din to Shimla to welcome him with costly gifts which included a gorgeous tent of Kashmiri pashmina (soft fine wool), a few fine pedigreed horses and a tall elephant, and an extremely beautiful tent of shawl for the king of England. The mission was welcomed at Shimla with splendor and ostentation. Captain Wade, who was British government's agent at Ludhiana was appointed as officer for hospitality. To see them [Sikh mission] off, a splendid darbar was held at the Government House. Afterwards a delegation of senior officers of the British government came for a meeting with the Maharaja with costly gifts including two nice European horses, an elephant with silver howdah, a sword embedded with precious stones, a double-barreled gun, a slapper of new model, two spears inset with diamonds, and a few rolls of brocade. The Diwan and the Faqir were also invested with robes of high order.

Anointment of Mian Dhian Singh as Raja - April 1828 A.D.

It has been mentioned above that fortune stars of Gulab Singh, Dhian Singh and Suchet Singh were in ascendance.- The Maharaja was enamored of these three brothers. Of them Dhian Singh had especially gained great access and influence in the Darbar and at that time held the distinguished position of Deodhidar. In order to further elevate his status, the Maharaja held a general court on the Baisakhi Day wherein Dhian Singh was granted a costly robe and was anointed as raja, and was also decorated with the title of “Raja-i-Rajgan, Raja-i-Hindpat, Raja Dhian Singh Bahadar.”14

Title of Raja to Hira Singh

Raja Dhian Singh's son, Hira Singh, a very handsome and astute young lad was a favourite of the Maharaja. The Maharaja gave him too, the title of Raja and put with his own auspicious hand the mark of anointment on his forehead. In order to raise the social status of this family, the Maharaja had also tried to get Hira Singh married to the daughter of Raja Sansar Chand Katoch. This episode has already been related.

Rebellion of Khalifa Sayyd Ahmad - 1827 A.D. to 1831 A.D.

News were received from Peshawar that Sayyd Ahmad had raised a standart of revolt in the Yusafzai region. Sayyad Ahmad's real name was Mir Ahmad. He was a resident of Bareilly district (now Uttar Pardesh). In the beginning, he had been employed in the army of Amir Khan Rohela. Later on he turned to religious pursuits. It is also said that he used to utter prophesies with divine inspiration. He went on pilgrimage to Mecca and Madina, and when he came back to India, hundreds of Muslims became his followers and thousands of rupees came to him as offerings. Two or three learned and famous Muslim scholars of Delhi such as Maulavi Abd-ul-Hai and Maulavi Isma'il became his disciples. Passing through Sind and Shikarpur, they (Sayyd Ahmad and his followers) reached Kabul. There, the Sayyd started delivering religious sermons. He raised Mohammadi (or Islamic) flag under which Afghan tribes of Pakhli, Dhama'tur, Swat and Baner gathered. He passed a religious decree against the Sikhs and gave a call for Jehad against them.15 This resulted in an uprising throughout the North-West frontier region. To counter it, the Maharaja sent a body of troopers from Lahore under the Sandhanwalia Chiefs in March 1827, and ordered Yar Mohammad Khan of Peshawar to send his army in aid of Sandhanwalia chiefs. The irregular mob gathered by Sayyd Ahmad could not fight with the trained army of the Maharaja. Therefore they were defeated and they ran towards mountains of Swat. After some time they reorganized their fighting force and sent it towards the hilly tract of the Yusafzais and there, collecting a large force of the Khalil and Mohmand tribals, they started warfare in the Attock region. To suppress this fresh insurrection a huge army commanded by Prince Kharak Singh, General Allard and Ventura was dispatched in October 1827. Consequently a fierce battle was fought between the Pathans and the Sikhs as a result of which Khalifa Sayyd Ahmad was defeated and six thousand of his men were killed.16

Death of Sardar Yar Mohammad

During the following year, Khalifa Sayyd Ahmad made another plan and incited his followers against Yar Mohammad Khan saying that he was subservient to the Sikhs and he must be set right. Collecting a host of forty thousand crusaders (Jehadis), the Khalifa invaded Peshawar and, defeating the Barakzai chief, himself took possession of Peshawar. Sardar Yar Mohammad was killed in this battle and his artillery fell into Sayyd Ahmad's hands.

Appointment of Sultan Mohammad Khan - 1830 A.D.

The passing of Peshawar into the hands Sayyd Ahmad, gave the Maharaja some anxious moments. Prince Sher Singh and General Ventura, who were then in the neighbourhood of Attock, were ordered to reach Peshawar. They reached there without any loss of time, surrounded Sayyd Ahmad's crowd, and after a pitched battle occupied Peshawar. Sayyd Ahmad ran away from there. The Maharaja called back Yar Mohammad's brother Sultan Mohammad Khan and appointed him as nazim of Peshawar.

Asp-i-Lalla

The horse named Lalla, which was in the possession of Barakzai chiefs, was a famous and unique animal. It appears from the writings of Diwan Amar Nath that for this horse requests had been received by the Barakzai chiefs from the Kings of Rome and Iran who were prepared to pay heavy price for it. During the past year Maharaja Ranjit Singh had also tried for it, but Yar Mohammad had put him off saying that the horse had died, and had skirted the matter by presenting another beautiful and swift-footed horse to the Maharaja. But this time the Maharaja demanded Lalla before awarding the chiefship of Peshawar to Yar Mohd. Khan. In this way, Sultan Yar Muhammad Khan was compelled to present this unique horse to the Maharaja. Pleased at this, the Maharaja presented a robe of honour valued at two thousand rupees to Ventura who had accompanied the horse to Lahore.

Death of Sayyd Ahmad - May 1831 A.D.

As soon as the Maharaja's army came back from Peshawar, Khalifa Sayyd Ahmad again raised a standard of revolt. This sequence continued for over a year. Sultan Mohammad Khan defeated Sayyd Ahmad. But the trouble continued and at times the Sayyd got the upper hand. In the end the Afghans got displeased with him for many reasons and became his sworn enemies. Therefore he left the Yusafzai region and went over to Muzaffarabad district because many of his disciples were still to be found there. With their help he established himself in the fort of Muzaffarbad in April 1831 and continued his war against the Khalsa army. At last the Khalifah and his adviser Maulvi Isma'il both were killed in a skirmish and this rebellion came to an end.16

Notes & References

  1.  About this horse it is written in Zafarnamah Ranjit Singh. “Persian horse having speed of one hundred kos".
  2.  Yar Mohammad Khan was governor of Peshawar from the side of Maharaja Ranjit Singh.
  3.  Pandit Ganesh Das who has written an account of the conquest of Multan in verse, which has already been mentioned, also writes about the conquest of Peshawar in his verses in commonly-understood Hindi poetry. In this context he writes :

"Leaving the company of the evil-intentionecl (i.e. Muslims), he came to join the Singhs. "

  1.  For details see Umdat-ut-Twarikh, Daftar II, p. 304.
  2.  Ganesh Das writes in his Chhands (couplets) :

Having killed Phoola Singh the Pathans became happy;

that the great brave is dead, we shall conquer the Singhs        

When the King heard of the death of Phoola Singh, (he said)

"Such a powerful Singh is rare in our Darbar."

The body of Akali Phoola Singh was cremated with great honours, and in memory of this brave Sardar, the Maharaja got his Samadhi (mausoleum) erected there itself.

  1.  Ganesh Das tells the date thus :

The year was eighteen hundred and seventy-nine (Bikrami era)

On an auspicious day of the month of Chet [March-AprilJ he won Peshawar with firm resolve.

  1.  Ganesh Das writes :

The King and the Chiefs all entered Peshawar together.

Hindus, Brahmins and Kshatriyas (say) 'Blessed are we in this place.'

  1.  For details see Zafarnamah-i-Ranjit Singh, pp. 104-105.

Ganesh Das also mentions this famous horse Kahar (i.e.Gauharbar) in his couplets :

Yar Mohammad and all met the Sarkar bowing their heads

And said, 'Take Kahar and do not kill us; we are truly your subjects.

And he gave lot of money, one hundred shawls and juicy fruits.

He became a subject with grass in mouth. The Sarkar became benign and said :

"Be fearless now; let Peshawar be under your rule;

Attend to all our Singhs who come here."

  1. Ramanand’s frugality had become a legend. Diwan Amar Nath writes in Zafarnamah-i- Ranjit Singh that people did not bring his name on their tongue in the morning lest they might not find food throughout the day.” (page 59).
  2.  Diwan Amar Nath writes on page 133 of Zafarnamah-i-Ranjit Singh that some Indian merchants brought a high-priced hookah or hubble-bubble which the large-hearted Maharaja purchased for twenty thousand rupees and gave it to Misr Diwan (?hand and he also gave him permission to smoke hookah. With this special right Misr Diwan Chand's status became still higher in the eyes of others.
  3.  For details see Umdat-ut-Twarikh, Daftar II, page 343.
  4.  According to Diwan Amar Nath's estimate, nine thousand houses collapsed, forty thousand humans died, and goods worth one hundred thousand rupees were destroyed. See Zafarnamah-i-Ranjit Singh, page 179, and Umdat-ut-Twarikh, Daftar II, page 350.
  5.  Diwan Amar Nath mentions this epidemic in a very pitiful tone.
  6.  See Zafarnamah-i-Ranjit Singh, page 184.
  7.  Zafarnamah, page 175. “He reached the capital Kabul and called upon the people of that area to join the crusade.”
  8. Diwan Amar Nath writes in this connection that Kanwar Sher Singh, who was in command of the Khalsa army at that time got the Khalifa's corpse brought to him and got his portrait made by a capable painter, which the prince later presented to the Maharaja. On seeing it the Maharaja profusely admired his manly foe. Zafarnamah, pp. 194-95.

Sayyd Mohammad Latif’s averment that Kanwar Sher Singh got the Khalifah's head severed and sent it to the Maharaja is absolutely wrong and baseless.