Authenticity of Shabad Guru: Historical Perspective
Bijla Singh March 10, 2014
Shabad, the divine revealed word, (also known as Gurbani, literally utterances of the Gurus) is enshrined in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji as the eternal and everlasting Guru of the Sikhs. Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji, the 10th Guru of the Sikhs, officially passed on his spiritual authority and Gurugaddi (Throne of Guru) to Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji in 1708. Despite the availability of abundant historical records and evidence to support this transition, the heretical sect of Namdharis has concocted stories and myths to propagate their own theories to justify following an imposter human guru. The Naamdhari, initially started as a revival movement within Sikhism was founded by a spiritually enlightened Sikh named Baba Raam Singh,. His movement was an initial force in reviving the Sikh faith, but was later corrupted and twisted into its current state by errant followers of the sect while Baba Ram Singh was exiled to Burma by the British. The errant followers claim that Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji did not pass away in 1708 but, instead, escaped his own funeral by trickery. The Namdharis claims that Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji was seen by some people after his funeral took place, thus concluding that Gurugaddi was never given to Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji but retained by Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji and passed on the Gurugaddi to more humans.
Our intent in this article is to examine these theories from a purely objective and historical viewpoint. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present historical evidence to debunk the Namdhari theories by proving the physical ascension Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji and Gurugaddi being given to Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. Our approach is threefold: a) to discuss the physical ascension of Guru Sahib; b) to examine sources that mention Guru Sahib’s vision to people after the funeral; and lastly, c) to detail the Gurugaddi being given to Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji.
First, it is pertinent to look at the contemporary and semi-contemporary historical sources that discuss the ascension of Guru Sahib. In this section, we present the sources that were written purely from a historical viewpoint to objectively present the events vis-à-vis the ascension of Guru Sahib.
The first source to mention the ascension of Guru Sahib is the Royal Court News, the “Akhbarat-i-Darbar-i-Mualla”, of October-November 1708 A. D. and the “Bahadur Shah Nama” at a number of places. In these newspapers it is clearly mentioned:
On the death of the Guru having been reported to the Emperor, he ordered on October 30, 1708 (26th Sha'ban, 2nd Bahadurshahi regnal year), for a dress of honour to be conferred upon the Guru's (adopted) mourning son Ajit Singh –Hukm shud kih ba pisar-i-Gobind Rao Nanakpanthi khila-i-matami-i pidar-bi-dihand - It was ordered (by the Emperor) that a robe (khilat) be bestowed upon the son of Gobind Rao Nanakpanthi mourning for the death of his father.
Ajit Singh was the adopted son of Mata Sundari Ji, wife of Guru Sahib, and had been acknowledged as such by the government officials including the Emperor. When enquiring about the moveable property of the Guru which, according to the Mughal practice, should have been confiscated, the Emperor declared the following order on Ramazan 9, 2nd Bahadurshahi (November 11, 1708):
These goods will not add to the affluence of the royal treasury. It is the property of saintly people. It should not be interfered with.” - Hukm shud az-In amwal khazanah-i-badshahan mamur na-mIshawad. Mal-i-darveshan ast, Mazaham na-shawand.
The next piece of contemporary evidence is by ballad singer Nath Mall who was present in the camp of Guru Sahib at Nanded. One of his ballads known as the “Amar Nama”, composed under the name of the Guru Sahib himself in the first person, was completed in the month of Katik 1765 Bikrami after the death of the tenth Guru. As the 30th of Katik of that year corresponded to October 31, 1708, the “Amar Nama” was evidently completed within twenty-four days of the Guru Sahib’s ascension. Describing it in the first person, as if in the words of the Guru, the “Amar Nama” says in lines 61-62:
I (then) resolved to set for the lasting abode in heaven, which is the place of all peace and divine blissfulness. My Singhs (the Khalsa) shall remain firm, listening to Vars from Dhadi singers.
“Ibrat Namah” or the “Swaneh”, 1705-19 A. D., written by Mirza Muhammad Harisi, devotes some thirteen pages to the contemporary account of the Sikhs, with particular reference to Baba Banda Singh. The author mentions that Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji had travelled in the train of Emperor Bahadur Shah to the Deccan and was killed there in 1120 al-Hijri, 1708 A. D., by an Afghan, an old enemy of his, and his body was cremated according to Hindu rites. Ajit Singh (the adopted son), who was popularly known as his son and had been received into royal favor, remained with the Emperor.
“Sri Gur Sobha”, by poet Sainapat, was completed in 1768 Bikrami, 1711 A. D., i.e., within three years of Guru Sahib’s ascension. The author mentions that a day prior, Guru Sahib, in reply to a question of the Sikhs repeated the same words as of 1699 and said that He had conferred his physical form to Khalsa and the Gurugaddi was vested in the Limitless and the Eternal Word as the Satguru. In the words of Sainapat:
ਖਾਲਸ ਹੀ ਸੋ ਹੈ ਮਮ ਕਾਮਾ । ਬਖਸ਼ ਦੀਓ ਖਾਲਸ ਕੋ ਜਾਮਾ ॥੪੧॥੮੦੬॥..
ਸਤਿਗੁਰੂ ਹਮਾਰਾ ਅਪਰ ਅਪਾਰਾ ਸਬਦਿ ਬਿਚਾਰਾ ਅਜਰ ਜਰੰ ।
All my ties are with the Khalsa. I have bestowed my form (physical authority) to the Khalsa….My Satguru is Incomparable and Infinite whose eternal bliss is obtained through the contemplation of the Shabad (Gurbani).
Sayyad Muhammad Qasim Husaini Lahauri's “Ibrat Nama” (completed in 1722) and “Ibrat Iqbal” (written in 1731) not only mention the ascension of Guru Sahib, but also His cremation by His disciples (Sikhs) with aloe and sandalwood according to Sikh rites.
“Chahar Gulshan Akhbarun- Nawadir” completed in 1759 by Rai Chatarman states:
As declared by Guru Nanak, there are ten persons [to be recognized]. These Ten khalifahs (Gurus) are called Das Mahal. Anyone else sitting on the gaddi after them is not acceptable to them (the Sikhs).
In the “Majma-ul-Akhbar” (1214-20 A.H., 1799-1805 A.D.), its author, Har Sukh Rai, says about Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji:
He is the Tenth Mahal and is the last Zahur (appearance or successor) of Guru Nanak.
Muhammad Ali Khan Ansari on page 152 of “Tarikh-i-MuzaffarI”, (1810 A.D.) and page 208 of “Tarikh-i-Bahr-ul-Mawwaj” states:
After him (Guru Gobind Singh), according to the faith of these people (the Sikhs), the descending of Gurugaddi and of internal spiritualism came to an end and the book, the Granth, was established in place of the Guru.
Khushwaqt Rai's “Tarlkh-I-Sikhan”, also called the “Kitab-i-Tawarikh-i··Panjab”, was written in 1811. Therein, he says:
At Afzal [Abchal] Nagar [Nanded], the Guru purchased a piece of land and moved in all happiness from this transitory world to the world Eternal. The disciples of the Guru collected from all sides and cremated his dead body with aloe and sandalwood with all the necessary rites. This event, that is his death, took place on Katik Sudi 5, 1765 Bikrami. The generation (of Gurus) of Guru Nanak up to Guru Gobind Singh came to an end.
There are some other sources of first half of 19th century namely “Tawarikh-i-Hind” by Ahmad Shah Batalia, “Umdat-ut-Twarikh” by Sohan Lal Suri, “Khalis Namah” by Ratan Chand Bal and “Tarikh-i-Panjab” by Ghualm Muhy-ud-Din that unanimously agree upon the ascension of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Another source “Zafar Namah-i-Ranjit Singh” of 1876 by Kanhaiya Lal states the same unequivocally.
In addition to Muslim sources, there are many English sources written by Europeans that confirm the fact that Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji did not appoint any human successor. George Forster in his “A Journey from Bengal to England”, written in 1783, says:
Govind Singh was assassinated during this expedition of Emperor Bahadur Shah to the Deccan by a Pathan soldier and he died of his wounds in 1708 at the town of Nandere without leaving any male issue; and a tradition delivered to the Sicques, limiting their priests to the number of ten, induced them to appoint no successors to Govind Singh.
Major James Browne talking about the inscription on the Sikh coins, casually mentions the Sikh Gurus in his “History of the Origin and Progress of the Sicks” published in 1787-88. He states:
…but they had been current about fifteen years, the grand Diet of the Sick chiefs (called Goormutta) determined to call in all those rupees, and to strike them in the names of Gooroo Nanak and Gooroo Gobind Singh, the first and last of their Gooroos or religious leaders.
Other English writers like Malcolm, M’Gregor, Cunningham, Henry Court and many other 19th century English writers all describe the ascension of Sri Guru Gobind Singh as an objective historical fact.
In addition to all the above historical works, there are Gur Parnalis, genealogies of the Gurus, that attest to physical ascension of Guru Sahib. Bhai Kesar Singh in his Gurparnali written in 1780 states:
ਸੰਮਤ ੧੭੬੫, ਕੱਤਿਕ ਸੁਦੀ ੫, ਸੋਮਵਾਰ, ਦੋ ਪਹਿਰ ਰਾਤ ਗਈ, ਸ੍ਰੀ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ ਜੀ ਸਮਾਣੇ, ਸ੍ਰੀ ਅਬਚਲ ਨਗਰ, ਗੁਦਾਵਰੀ ਕਿਨਾਰੇ।
Samvat 1765 (1708 A.D.), Katik Sudi 5, Monday, two pehars (6 hours) night passed, Sri Satguru Gobind Singh Ji passed away at Abchal Nagar near bank of Godavari river.
Kavi Sondha’s Gurparnali written in 1833 confirms the same date as follows:
ਸਤਾਰਾਂ ਸੇ ਪੈਂਹਠ ਸੰਮਤ ਵੀਰਵਾਰ ਕੋ ਨਾਇ। ਕਤਿਕ ਸੁਦੀ ਸੁ ਪੰਚਮੀ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ ਸਮਾਇ।੪੪॥
Samvat 1765 (1708 A.D.), day Thursday. Katik Sudi 5 (Guru) Gobind Singh merged (his light with the Divine).
Bhai Gulab Singh wrote his Gurparnali during the Sikh Kingdom.
ਸੰਮਤ ਸਤਾਰਾਂ ਸੈ ਪੈਂਠਿਰੁ ਹੈ; ਕਾਤਿਕ ਸੁਦੀਓਂ ਪਾਂਚ, ਵੀਰਵਾਰ...ਦਾਹ ਨਿਜ ਤਨ ਕੀਆ।
Samvat is 1765. Katik Sudi 5, Thursday...his body was set alight.
With the above presented evidence, it becomes conclusively proven beyond doubt that Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s physical ascension is a historical fact.
In order to give credibility to the distorted version of history, Namdharis often claim that the very proof of Guru Sahib not dying a physical death is proven by the alleged fact that He was seen by a wood cutter and as an ascetic after the cremation had taken place. Therefore, it becomes pertinent to take a closer look at the sources that mention these events and ascertain if they hold anything that remotely adds any weight to the Namdhari argument.
The first source to mention any event related to Guru Sahib’s life after the cremation is “Parchian Sewa Das”, written by an Udasi ascetic. According to the date mentioned in the manuscript preserved at Punjab University, Lahore, it was written in 1798 Bikrami, 1741 A.D., while the manuscript in the Central State Library Patiala, bears 1896 Bikrami, 1839 A.D., as the date of its transcription. Sewa Das tells in his work that the Guru had his funeral pyre prepared under his own supervision. He mounted it fully dressed and armed, sat on it cross-legged and that his light blended with the Divine Light - joti meh jot samane….After pouring plenty of ghee thereon, the pyre was set alight…When the pyre was all reduced to ashes, they found no trace of the dead body or of the Guru's arms. All then so thought that the Guru Baba had gone (to heaven) bodily.
This is the first time, after 33 years of Guru Sahib’s ascension that a mention of Guru Sahib’s body disappearing without leaving any trace was ever made. In order to prove that the Guru can never die, Sewa Das gives a mystical explanation to the event by stating that Guru Sahib simply disappeared. However, this does not at all prove that he escaped from his own funeral through a different route leaving the entire Sikh nation deluded regarding His ascension. Further, it does not prove that Guru Sahib continued His physical life afterwards since the account clearly mentions Guru Sahib having gone to His heavenly abode. For example, almost all historical sources mention that Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s physical body disappeared without leaving any trace, but it does not change the fact that Guru Sahib left His physical body and the GGurugaddi had been bestowed upon Sri Guru Angad Dev Ji. Similarly, Sewa Das does not negate the fact that the Gurugaddi had been bestowed to the Shabad enshrined in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. Sewa Das describes that Sikhs cried during the cremation and looked through the ashes afterwards but they did not find anything. It was a moral lesson to Sikhs to not attach any significance or importance to the physical body which was never the Guru to begin with. Also, disappearance of the physical body is a symbolical affirmation of the Shabad being the Guru. Namdharis apparently fail to understand this fact and concoct stories to fancy their imagination and resort to pure conjectures.
The second source is “Gurbilas Patshahi 10” by Koer Singh. It mentions that when Sikhs sorted through the ashes, only a small sword was found. Seeing this, all the Sikhs wallowed in sorrow. At that time, an ascetic appeared on the scene and told that he had met Guru Sahib in full dress on horseback and had come to convey the message not to mourn and stay in exalted spirit. This story does not prove the Namdhari myth as true due to the fact that the author makes no mention of Guru Sahib leaving in disguise as Ajapal Singh, as is asserted by the Namdharis. On the contrary, the author makes it clear as explained in the preceding section that the GGurugaddi was passed on to Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. The author further claims that after the cremation, many angels from heaven came to receive Guru Sahib which proves that physical life of Guru Sahib had come to an end. Also, according to the source, the ascetic had vision of Guru Sahib on the fourth day rather than the same day or the following morning.
The third source is “Gurbilas Patshahi 10” by Sukha Singh, completed near the end of the 18th century. As well as relying on previous historical accounts, Sukha Singh has taken the liberty of adding some fictitious stories of his own. He has also given the ascension year of passing as 1693, which is wholly incorrect. Describing the last days of Guru Sahib, he mentions after the cremation, nothing from the heap of ashes was found and an ascetic met Guru Sahib the next morning as opposed to the fourth day as described by Koer Singh. After the completion of his work, he has added another chapter which he calls “extra” or “unnecessary” describing how Guru Sahib liberates two Marathas from the prison of Fort Sitara. However, the names of the two prisoners, Bala Rai and Rustam Rai, are purely conjecture and are not found in any Maratha historical work and, thus, the event remains unverified by objective Maratha historians. What totally decimates Namdhari myth is the fact that the same source mentions Guru Sahib entrusting the Sikhs to the care and protection of God and instructing them to read Gurbani from the pothi (volume) of Das Mahal (Ten Gurus).
ਲੋਕ ਸੁਖੀ ਪਰਲੋਕ ਬਨਾਯੋ । ਸ੍ਰੀ ਹਰਿ ਜੂ ਕੇ ਚਰਨਨਿ ਧਿਆਯੋ ।...
ਦਸ ਮਹਲਨ ਕੀ ਪੜੀਐ ਬਾਨੀ । ਅਚੁਤ ਸੁਖ ਪਾਵਹੁ ਨਿਰਬਾਨੀ ।
Become blissful in this world and the next by meditating upon the lotus feet of God….
Read the Bani of the Ten Gurus and thus obtain eternal bliss and meet God (obtain highest spiritual state).
“Sooraj Parkash”, completed in 1843 by Kavi (poet) Santokh Singh, is another source that mentions Guru Sahib meeting a wood cutter and an ascetic after the cremation. This is not any different than repeating the same folklore of Koer Singh and Sukha Singh. However, the author just like all others does not support any of the Namdhari myths. Unlike all other authors, he mentions Sri Guru Harkrishan Ji instructing Sikhs to have faith in Gurbani as Guru. In his narrative, Sri Guru Harkrishan Ji states:
ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਸਭਿ ਕੇਰਾ । ਜੋ ਹਮਰੋ ਚਹਿ ਦਰਸ਼ਨ ਹੇਰਾ ।
ਸੋ ਸ਼ਰਧਾ ਧਰਿ ਹੇਰਨਿ ਕਰੈ । ਪਾਪਨਿ ਗਨ ਕੌ ਤਤਛਿਨ ਹਰੈ ॥੨੭॥
ਹਮ ਸੋਂ ਬਾਤ ਕਰਨਿ ਕੋ ਚਾਹਹਿ । ਪਠਹਿ ਸੁਨਹਿ ਗੁਰ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਉਮਾਹਹਿ ।
ਤਿਸ ਮਹਿਂ ਕਹਯੋ ਜੁ ਕਰਹਿ ਕਮਾਵਨਿ । ਚਾਰ ਪਦਾਰਥ ਲੇ ਮਨ ਪਾਵਨ ॥੨੮॥
ਹੋਹਿ ਕਾਮਨਾ ਸਿਖ ਕੈ ਕੋਈ । ਬਿਘਨ ਪਰਹਿ ਕੈ ਸੰਕਟ ਹੋਈ ।
ਸ਼ਰਨ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਕੀ ਜਾਇ । ਤਤਛਿਨ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਬਨਹਿਂ ਸਹਾਇ ॥੨੯॥ 
ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਸਭ ਦਾ ਹੈ । ਜਿਹੜਾ ਸਾਡੇ ਦਰਸ਼ਨ ਕਰਨਾ ਚਾਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੋਵੇ, ਉਹ ਸ਼ਰਧਾ ਧਾਰ ਕੇ ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਵੇਖੇ, ਬਹੁਤ ਪਾਪਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਤੁਰੰਤ ਦੂਰ ਕਰ ਲਵੇਗਾ ।੨੭। ਸਾਡੇ ਨਾਲ ਗੱਲ ਕਰਨੀ ਚਾਹੇ ਤੇ ਬੜੇ ਉਤਸ਼ਾਹ ਨਾਲ ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਪੜ੍ਹੇ ਅਤੇ ਸੁਣੇ । ਉਸ ਵਿਚ ਜੋ ਕੁਝ ਕਿਹਾ ਹੈ ਜੇ ਉਸਦੀ ਕਮਾਈ ਕਰੇ ਤਾਂ ਚਾਰ ਪਦਾਰਥ ਪ੍ਰਾਪਤ ਕਰ ਲਵੇਗਾ ।੨੮। ਸਿੱਖ ਦੀ ਕੋਈ ਵੀ ਕਾਮਨਾ ਹੋਵੇ, ਵਿਘਨ ਪਵੇ ਜਾਂ ਸੰਕਟ ਆਵੇ, ਉਹ ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਦੀ ਸ਼ਰਨ ਵਿਚ ਜਾਵੇ, ਤੁਰੰਤ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਜੀ ਸਹਾਈ ਬਣਨਗੇ ।੨੯।
Guru Granth Sahib is the Guru of all. He who wants to have my darshan (blissful vision) should look upon Guru Granth Sahib with utmost faith and devotion. Many sins will be erased. If he wishes to have a dialogue with me, read and listen to Guru Granth Sahib attentively and with reverence. If he follows the message stated in it (Guru Granth Sahib), he shall obtain four great blessings. If a Sikh has any wish, problem or obstacle, he should seek the sanctuary of Guru Granth Sahib. The Guru shall instantly render him help.
Sooraj Parkash also mentions that at the time of passing Gurugaddi to the 9th Guru, Guru Harkrishan Ji respectfully opened Guru Granth Sahib and bowed to it. This leaves no doubt that Kavi Santokh Singh was a firm believer in the Gurugaddi of Sri Guru Granth Sahib. It further adds weight to our argument that during the tenure of earlier Gurus, only Gurbani and not the physical body was considered the True Guru.
The last Sikh source mentioning the legends after the cremation event is Panth Parkash by Giani Gian Singh. Despite what Namdharis may claim, the source does not provide them with anything to back up their fallacious statements. Giani Gian Singh not only mentions installation of Guru Granth Sahib as the Guru (as previously discussed) but also makes it clear that the Sikhs had full faith in the ascension of Guru Sahib, and despite the claims of the ascetic having met Guru Sahib, the Sikhs performed the Bhog ceremony of Sri Guru Granth Sahib on the tenth day of Guru’s ascension.
ਗੁਰੁ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਕੋ ਤੁਮ ਗੁਰੁ ਮਾਨੋ, ਗੁਰੂ ਜੋ ਫੁਰਮਾ ਗਏ ।
ਨਿਜ ਸ਼ਕਤਿ ਇਸ ਮੈਂ ਥਪ ਗਏ, ਕਲਿਯਾਨ ਤੁਮਰੀ ਇਹੁ ਕਏ ।...
ਪਿਖਿ ਭਯੋ ਨਿਸਚਾ ਸਭੀ ਕੋ, ਸਣ ਦੇਹ ਗੁਰੁ ਕੇ ਜਾਣ ਕਾ ।
ਫਿਰ ਕਿਯ ਦਸੈਹਰਾ ਭੋਗ ਪਾਯੋ, ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਗੁਰੁ ਮਾਹਾਨ ਕਾ ।
As instructed by the Guru (Guru Gobind Singh Ji) believe Guru Granth as the Guru. He transferred his personal authority and power in it, this will give you salvation. Everyone was firm in the belief that the Guru had left this world with his physical body. Consequently, bhog (completion of reading) of great Guru Granth was completed on the tenth day.
This part of the event has remained the same throughout all editions of “Panth Parkash” whereas the mythical legends of Guru Sahib meeting a wood cutter and an ascetic were removed by the author himself in the 6th edition. It appears that due to the awakening of the Sikh masses and interest in having objective historic accounts of the lives of the Gurus in the early 20th century, Giani Gian Singh realized his mistake of copying events from old historic books without any scrutiny and decided to rectify his work to correctly describe the historic events. This is evident from the fact that “Twarikh Guru Khalsa”, written by the same author, makes no mention of mythical legends attached to Guru Sahib’s life after cremation while clearly mentioning Guru Sahib giving GGurugaddi to Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. He mentions:
ਭਾਈ ਸਿੱਖੋ। ਅਸੀਂ ਤੁਹਾਨੂੰ ਇੱਕ ਐਸੇ ਗੁਰੂ ਦੇ ਲੜ ਲਾਉਂਦੇ ਹਾਂ ਜੋ ਕਦੇ ਭੀ ਕਾਯਾਂ ਨਾ ਬਦਲੇ । ਸਦਾ ਇਕ ਰਸ ਅਜਰ ਅਮਰ ਬਣਿਆ ਰਹੇ ਅਤੇ ਪੱਖ ਪਾਤ ਬਿਨਾਂ ਸੱਚਾ ਆਤਮਕ ਉਪਦੇਸ਼ ਹਮੇਸ਼ ਕਲੇਸ਼ ਕਾਟਾ ਕਰਦਾ ਰਹੇ ।...ਏਤਨੇ ਬਚਨ ਕਰਕੇ ਕਲਗੀਧਰ ਜੀ ਨੇ ਆਦਿ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਜੀ ਦਾ ਪ੍ਰਕਾਸ਼ ਕਰਵਾ ਕਰ ਪੰਜ ਪੈਸੇ ਇਕ ਨਾਲੀਯੇਰ ਅੱਗੇ ਧਰ ਕੇ ਚਾਰ ਪ੍ਰਕਰਮਾਂ ਕਰ ਮੱਥਾ ਟੇਕ ਦਿੱਤਾ ਤੇ ਸਰਬ ਖਾਲਸੇ ਨੂੰ ਆਖਯਾ, "ਅੱਜ ਤੋਂ ਏਹ ਧਰਮ, ਅਰਥ, ਕਾਮ, ਮੋਖ ਦੇਣ ਹਾਰਾ ਸਰਬ ਸ਼ਕਤੀਵਾਨ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਤੁਸਾਡਾ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੂ ਹੋਯਾ।
Dear Sikh brothers! I am connecting you to such a Guru who will never change form or body, remain unchanged and eternal and without discrimination gives true spiritual message to everyone to destroy sins and sorrows….After saying these words, Kalgidhar Ji (Guru Gobind Singh Ji) ordered the parkash of Guru Granth Sahib, presented five paise and a coconut in front of it and after circumambulating it four times bowed down to it. Then he addressed the entire Khalsa, “From today Omnipotent Granth Sahib, deliverer of four blessings, is your Satguru.
To summarize, all the sources that do even attach legends to Guru Sahib’s life still make no mention of Him escaping and living in disguise, neither do they serve to refute the authority of Gurbani as Guru. These sources also do not state that even in the mythical legends, that Guru Sahib was alive as in flesh and blood. His vision is never described as a physical but rather of a mystical nature. Further, there have been Sikhs like Bhai Vir Singh, Bhai Randhir Singh, Baba Wasakha Singh, Sant Attar Singh Mastuana, Baba Nand Singh, Sant Gurbachan Singh and many others throughout 19th and 20th centuries who have had vision of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Considering this fact on the same lines of Namdharis, it must be concluded that Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji is still physically alive and all the Namdhari so-called gurus are imposters and fraud. The fact that the spirit never dies and vision of Guru Sahib are purely mystical leave no doubt that Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji is the Guru and Namdhari stories are mythical, fictitious and purely imaginary.
In this section, we present historical accounts that not only prove the ascension of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji but also unequivocally prove Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji being declared as the eternal Guru of the Sikhs.
First and foremost prophetic evidence is provided by Bhai Gurdas Ji, a contemporary of the 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th Gurus. In his Vaar 1, Pauri 48 he writes that some Sikhs asked Sri Guru Hargobind Ji that so far the light of Guru has had resided in six physical bodies (Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji to Sri Guru Hargobind Ji) and how many more will the light (authority) be passed on to. Guru Sahib in response stated that the Gurugaddi (authority of Guru) will be passed on to four more human forms. Guru Sahib stated unequivocally that the next four Gurus will be in pair of two (father and a son) clearly referring to Guru Harrai Ji (7th Guru) and his son Sri Guru Harkrishan Ji (8th Guru) and Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji (9th Guru) and his son Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji (10th Guru).
ਪੁਛਨਿ ਸਿਖ ਅਰਦਾਸ ਕਰ ਛਿਅ ਮਹਿਲਾ ਤਕਿ ਦਰਸੁ ਨਿਹਾਰੀ॥
ਅਗਮ ਅਗੋਚਰ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੂ ਬੋਲੇ ਮੁਖ ਤੇ ਸੁਣਹੁ ਸੰਸਾਰੀ॥
ਕਲਿਜੁਗਿ ਪੀੜੀ ਸੋਢੀਆਂ ਨਿਹਚਲ ਨੀਵ ਉਸਾਰਿ ਖਲਾਰੀ॥
ਜੁਗ ਜੁਗ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਧਰੇ ਅਵਤਾਰੀ ॥੪੮॥
The Sikhs prayed and asked that they have seen the Six Gurus (how many more are to come). The True Guru, the knower of the unknowable and Seer of the invisible told the Sikhs to listen to. The lineage of the Sodhis has been established on the sound foundation. Four more Gurus will come to earth (yuga 2, yuga 2 i.e. 2+2=4)(48)
In “Rehatnamas” by Bhai Nand Lal Ji and Bhai Sahib Singh Ji, authority of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji is clearly mentioned. “Rehatnama” by Bhai Nand Lal Ji is written in the form of a dialogue between the Guru and the Bhai. It states:
ਦੂਸਰ ਰੂਪ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਜੀ ਜਾਨਹੁ । ਆਪਨ ਅੰਗ ਮੇਰੇ ਕਰ ਮਾਨਹੁ ।…
ਜੋ ਸਿਖ ਗੁਰ ਦਰਸ਼ਨ ਕੀ ਚਾਹਿ । ਦਰਸ਼ਨ ਕਰੇ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਜੀ ਆਹਿ ।…
ਜੋ ਮਮ ਸਾਥ ਚਹੇ ਕਰਿ ਬਾਤ । ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਜੀ ਪੜ੍ਹੈ ਬਿਚਾਰਹਿ ਸਾਥ ।
ਜੋ ਮੁਝ ਬਚਨ ਸੁਨਨ ਕੀ ਚਾਹਿ । ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਵਿਚਾਰ ਸੁਨਹੁ ਚਿਤ ਲਾਇ ।
ਮੇਰਾ ਰੂਪ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਜੀ ਜਾਨ । ਇਸ ਮੇਂ ਭੇਦ ਨ ਰੰਚਕ ਮਾਨ ।
The Granth is my second self and should be taken as such for me. A Sikh who wants to see me should gaze at the Granth Sahib. One who wishes to talk to me should read the Granth and contemplate over its message. One who is anxious to listen to me talk, he or she should read the Granth Sahib and listen to its recitation with attention. Consider the Granth as my own self. Have not the least doubt about it.
In the above, Guru Sahib tells Bhai Nand Lal that there is no difference between Himself and Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji and whosoever wishes to have His vision or a discourse with him; they should see and consult Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. Such an emphatic claim would have never been made if the Gurugaddi was not vested in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji.
“Gurbilas Chhevin Patshahi” completed on July 22, 1718 (within ten years of Guru Sahib's departure) leaves no doubt about the Gurugaddi being bestowed to Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. In Chapter 4, the author mentions compilation of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji by the fifth Guru, Sri Guru Arjun Dev Ji and its installation in Harmandar Sahib. The author states:
ਮਮ ਆਗਿਆ ਸਬ ਹੀ ਸੁਨੋ ਸਤਿ ਬਾਤ ਨਿਰਧਾਰ । ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਗੁਰੂ ਸਮ ਮਾਨਿਓ ਭੇਦ ਨਾ ਕੋਊ ਬਿਚਾਰ ॥੪੦੯॥
ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਕਲਜੁਗ ਭਯੋ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਰੂਪ ਸਮਾਨ । ਦਸ ਪਾਤਸ਼ਾਹੀਆਂ ਰੂਪ ਇਹ ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਜੀ ਜਾਨ ॥੪੧੨॥
ਗੁਰੂ ਦਰਸ ਜਿਹ ਦੇਖਨਾ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਦਰਸਾਇ । ਬਾਤ ਕਰਨਿ ਗੁਰ ਸੋ ਚਹੈ ਪੜ੍ਹੈ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਮਨ ਲਾਇ ॥੪੧੩॥
Hear ye all, this precept of mine as true and certain. Recognize the Granth to be the same as the Guru, Think not of any difference between the two. (409)
In the Kali-yuga, the Guru Granth has assumed the form of the Sri Guru. Recognize the Guru Granth to be the very self of the Ten Gurus. (412)
He who wishes to see the Guru, let him see the Guru Granth. And, he who wishes to speak to the Guru, let him read the Granth with a devoted mind. (413)
The reference above brings out a clear fact that while writing events from 1604, the author refers to the Adi Granth or Pothi Sahib as “Guru Granth”, the name given to it in 1708. Had it not been so the author would have used the original names.
Dr. Ganda Singh, an eminent Sikh historian, mentions a manuscript called “Guru Sahib Daswen Patshah Ji Ke Joti Jot Samawane Ka Prasang” that describes the account of Guru Sahib’s departure in 1708. He mentions the manuscript is preserved in Punjab State Archives, Patiala. According to it, Guru Sahib before his departure told the Sikhs that he was not appointing anyone to succeed him as Guru that he was entrusting them to Sri Sahib (The Sword) and the Shabad, the Great Word, as given in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji which should be accepted by all of them. Narrating the last sermon of Guru Sahib, the manuscript states:
ਤਾਂ ਤੇ ਅਬ ਕਿਸੀ ਕੋ ਗੁਰਿਆਈ ਕਾ ਤਿਲਕ ਦੇਣਾ ਜੋਗ ਨਹੀ । ਅਰ ਤੁਮ ਜੋ ਸਰਬਤ ਸੰਗਤ ਮੇਰਾ ਖਾਲਸਾ ਹੋ ਤੁਮ ਕੋ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਕੀ ਗੋਦ ਮਹਿ ਪਾਇਆ ਅਰ ਸਬਦ ਕਾ ਲੜ ਪਕੜਾਇਆ ਹੈ ।
Now it is not wise and appropriate to give Gurugaddi to anyone. And you all of my Sangat are my Khalsa, you are entrusted to the protection of God and Shabad.
Next source is “Gurbilas Patshahi 10”, written by Koer Singh, a student of the great Sikh saint Bhai Mani Singh. In his work, he makes it abundantly clear that the Gurugaddi was bestowed upon Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. He states:
ਸਰਬ ਸੁ ਸੰਗਤ ਖਾਲਸ ਮਾਨ । ਸ੍ਰੀ ਅਸਿਕੇਤ ਗੋਦ ਮੈ ਜਾਨ ।
ਲੜ ਪਕੜਾਇ ਸਬਦ ਕਾ ਰੂਪ । ਜੋ ਮਾਨੇ ਸੋ ਸਿੰਘ ਅਨੂਪ ॥੯੭॥
ਦਰਸਨ ਗੁਰ ਕਾ ਹੈ ਸਾਵਧਾਨ । ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਜੀ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਮਾਨ ।
ਲੈ ਆਵੋ ਤਾ ਕੋ ਯਾ ਬਾਨਾ । ਲੈ ਆਏ ਗੁਰ ਦਸਮ ਸੁਜਾਨਾ ॥੯੮॥...
ਤਬ ਪੁਨਿ ਆਪ ਉਠੇ ਸਭ ਸੰਗਾ । ਪੈਸੇ ਪਾਂਚ ਨਲੀਏਰ ਸੁ ਅੰਗਾ ॥੯੯॥
ਲੈ ਕੇ ਤਾਹਿ ਅਰਪ ਕੀ ਬੰਦਨ । ਪ੍ਰਦੱਖਨ ਕਰਤੇ ਮਨ ਰੰਗਨ ।
ਕਹਾ, "ਜੋਇ ਬਚ ਕੀਨਾ ਚਾਹੇ । ਪਾਠ ਕਰੈ ਗੁਰ ਕੋ ਸੁਖ ਪਾਏ ॥੧੦੦॥
ਯਾ ਸਮ ਔਰ ਕੋਈ ਗੁਰ ਨਾਹੀ । ਬਿਨਾ ਕਾਨ ਸਚੁ ਬਾਕ ਭਨਾਹੀ ।
Consider the entire Sangat as Khalsa. They have been entrusted to the protection (lap) of the Wielder of the Sword (Asi Ketu) the Divine Protector.
They have been given the hem of the very embodiment of the Word to hold. He who accepts it shall be an incomparable - really true - Singh. (97)
"Recognize Sri Granth as always alert and ever-ready (readily available, ever present). Accept the respected Granth as Lord.
"Bring it here to this place." Let us go to the Adi Sat-Guru (the great Adi Guru Granth Sahib). (98) Then he got up along with all of his Sikhs, took five paise and a coconut with him, offered them himself [to the Holy Book], bowed down, circumambulated with all reverence and said: 'He who wishes to talk to me should read the Guru [Granth Sahib] and receive the peace of mind. (99-100) 'There is no other Guru equal to it. Without any hesitation, I utter this truth.
The next source, “Bansavali Nama” by Kesar Singh Chibbar, was completed in 1769-70. In chapter 10 of his work, the author has mentioned very clearly that Guru Sahib’s cremation took place after He had been bathed in Ganga water. Regarding Gurugaddi, he writes:
ਦਸਵਾਂ ਪਾਤਸਾਹ ਗੱਦੀ ਗੁਰਿਆਈ ਦੀ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਨੂੰ ਦੇ ਗਿਆ ।
ਅਜ ਪ੍ਰਤਖ ਗੁਰੂ ਅਸਾਡਾ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਹੈ, ਸੋਈ ਗਿਆ ਜੋ ਗ੍ਰੰਥੋਂ ਗਿਆ ।...
ਬਿਨਾ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਦੇ ਕੋਈ ਹੋਰੁ ਨ ਜਾਣੇ ।...
ਜੋ ਸਿਖ ਗੁਰੂ ਕਾ ਹੋਇ, ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਬਚਨੋਂ ਮੁੜੇ । ਨਿਸਚੈ ਜਾਨੋ ਭਵਜਲ ਨਦੀ ਮੈ ਸੋਈ ਰੁੜ੍ਹੇ ।੩੪੭।
ਆਜ ਕੇ ਸਮੇਂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਹੈ ਗੁਰੂ ਹਮਾਰਾ ।...
ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਬਚਨ ਏਹ ਸਚ ਕਰ ਜਾਨੋ । ਬਿਨਾ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਗੁਰੂ ਹੋਰ ਨਾ ਮਾਨੋ ।
ਅਤੇ ਜੋ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਗੁਰੂ ਤੇ ਮੁਹੁ ਫੇਰੋਗੇ । ਤਾ ਏਹ ਜੂਨਾਂ ਸਭੇ ਜਨਮੁ ਪਾਇ ਕੇ ਹੇਰੋਗੇ ।੩੫੫।
The Tenth Guru gave Gurugaddi to Granth Sahib.
From today our visibly evident Guru is Granth Sahib, one who forsakes the Guru Granth is forsaken himself…
Consider none other than the Granth as the Guru….
If a Sikh of the Guru turns his back on the message of the Granth. He will undoubtedly drown in the world ocean and not be saved.
In this time and age Granth Sahib is our Guru…
(A Sikh must) Believe in words of Granth Sahib as the truth. He must not accept anyone else but the Granth as Guru. And whomsoever turns away from Guru Granth.Then he shall remain in the cycle of reincarnation.
The next historical source is “Mehima Parkash”, written in 1774 by Saroop Das Bhalla, a descendent of the 3rd Guru. In Sakhi 27, the author describes the last event related to Guru Sahib’s ascension. He writes:
ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਦੀਨ ਦਿਆਲ ਬਚਨ ਕੀਆ । ਜੋ ਦਸ ਸਰੂਪ ਹਮਾਰੇ ਪੂਰਨ ਭਏ । ਅਬ ਮੇਰੀ ਜਾਹਗਾ ਗੁਰ ਗਿਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਕੋ ਜਾਨਨਾ । ਜਿਸ ਨੇ ਮੇਰੇ ਸੇ ਬਾਤ ਕਰਨੀ ਜੋਇ ਤੇ ਆਦਿ ਗਿਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਕਾ ਪਾਠ ਕਰਨਾ । ਮੇਰੇ ਸੇ ਬਾਤਾ ਹੋਵੈਗੀ ।...ਸਿਖਾਂ ਨੇ ਬਿਬਾਨ ਤਿਆਰ ਕੀਆ । ਆਪ ਨੇ ਲੇਟ ਕਰ ਚਾਦਰ ਤਾਨ ਲੀਆ । ਨਿਜ ਪਦ ਨਿਰਬਾਨ ਮੇ ਪ੍ਰਭ ਲੀਨ ਭਏ । ਨਾ ਕਹੂੰ ਆਏ ਨਾ ਕਹੂੰ ਗਏ । ਯਹ ਚਲਿਤ੍ਰ ਦੇਖ ਕੇ ਸਭ ਲੋਕਾਂ ਨੇ ਸਤਗੁਰ ਕੋ ਪਾਰਬ੍ਰਹਮ ਜੋਤੀ ਸਰੂਪ ਜਾਨਾ ।...ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਜੀ ਕੀ ਜਾਗਾ ਗੁਰੂ ਗਿਰੰਥ ਜੀ ਕੋ ਜਾਨਾ ।
The Great Guru, merciful to the lowly, said. "Our Ten forms have come to end.” Now recognize the Guru Granth Sahib in my place. He who wishes to talk to me should read the Aad Granth Sahib. This will be like talking to me…the Sikhs prepared the biban (a wooden board to carry the body to the cremation ground). . He lay down and covered himself with a sheet. He merged Himself with the ultimate divine God. Neither did he come anywhere nor did he go anywhere. Seeing this spectacle all people fully realised that the True Guru was the very image of Divine God Himself….In place of Sri Guru [Gobind Singh] Sahib Ji, Guru Granth was recognized.
Another 18th century account, “Bhatt Vahis”, by Saroop Singh Kaushish clearly mention that Guru Sahib decided to pass Gurugaddi to Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. He instructed Bhai Daya Singh to open it ceremonially, placed five paise and a coconut and bowed in front of it. Then his funeral pyre was prepared and cremation ceremony performed. After that, Sikhs performed Bhog (completion) ceremony of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji.
“Prachin Panth Parkash”, written by Rattan Singh Bhangu in 1841, is entirely devoted to Sikh history after 1708. The author makes no mention of the ascension of Guru Sahib or describes any related events. However, in his work he mentions Guru Sahib instructing his Sikhs as follows:
ਪਹਿਰ ਕਛਹਿਰੇ ਸਿਰ ਬੰਧਯੋ ਪਾਗ । ਗੁਰ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਬਚਨ ਪਰ ਰਹਯੋ ਲਾਗ ।੧੪।
Wear Kachera (underwear garment) and tie a turban on your head. Abide by the teachings of Guru Granth Sahib.
It is noteworthy that the author has referred to Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji as the Guru which is significant enough to prove that the authority of Shabad being the Guru was accepted by him.
The next source is “Gur Pad Prem Parkash”, written by Bawa Sumer Singh in 1873. In Sakhi 501, he describes unambiguously that Guru Sahib prepared for his ascension and gave Gurugaddi to Guru Granth Sahib. He states:
ਰੂਪ ਇਕਾਦਸ ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਬਰ ਤਾਂ ਛਿਨ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਪ੍ਰਭੂ ਆਏ ॥ ਪੈਸੇ ਪਾਂਚ ਨਲੇਰ ਰਾਖ ਕਰ ਗੁਰੁਆਈ ਸੁਧਰਾਏ ॥੧੦॥
Guru Sahib merged his form with Guru Granth. Offering five paise and a coconut he gave Gurugaddi.
The last source we will reference is “Panth Parkash” by Giani Gian Singh. His account of Gurugaddi being passed to Guru Granth Sahib has remained consistent in all editions of this work. Explaining the last events of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji, the author states:
ਇਮ ਕਹਿ ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਕਾ ਪਰਕਾਸ ਕਰਾਯੋ । ਪੈਸੇ ਪਾਂਚ ਨਲੇਰ ਲੈ ਤਿਸ ਅੱਗ ਟਿਕਾਯੋ ॥੮੭॥
ਕਰ ਪਰਕਰਮਾ ਗੁਰੂ ਜੀ ਅਭਿ ਬੰਦਨ ਕੀਓ । ਗੁਰੂ ਰੂਪ ਥਪ ਪੂਜ ਕੈ ਸਭ ਤੈ ਪੁਜਵੀਓ ।....
ਨਾਨਕ ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ ਪੂਰਨ ਹਰਿ ਅਵਤਾਰ । ਜਗਮਗ ਜੋਤ ਬਿਰਾਜਹੀ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਮਝਾਰ ॥੮੯॥...
ਆਗਿਆ ਭਈ ਅਕਾਲ ਕੀ ਤਬੀ ਚਲਾਯੋ ਪੰਥ ॥ ਸਬ ਸਿਖਨ ਕੋ ਹੁਕਮ ਹੈ ਗੁਰੂ ਮਾਨੀਓ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ॥੯੦॥
ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਜੀ ਮਾਨੀਓ ਪ੍ਰਗਟ ਗੁਰਾ ਕੀ ਦੇਹ ॥ ਜੋ ਪ੍ਰਭ ਕੋ ਮਿਲਯੋ ਚਹੈ ਖੋਜ ਸਬਦ ਮੈ ਲੇਹ ॥੯੧॥
ਦਰਸਯੋ ਚਹਿ ਸਤਗੁਰੂ ਜੋ ਸੋ ਦਰਸੈ ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ । ਪਢੈ ਸੁਨੈ ਸਵਾਰਥ ਲਹੈ ਪਰਮਾਰਥ ਕੇ ਪੰਥ ॥੯੨॥
ਵਾਹਿਗੁਰੂ ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਜੀ ਊਭੈ ਜਹਾਜ ਉਦਾਰ । ਸਰਧਾ ਕਰ ਜੋ ਸੇਵ ਹੈ ਸੋ ਉਤਰੇ ਭਵ ਪਾਰ ॥੯੩॥
Saying thus, parkash of Guru Granth was done. He (Guru Gobind Singh) offered five paise and a coconut in front of it.
After circumambulating he bowed down to it. He declared it as the Guru and had everyone worship it.
Guru Nanak is Guru Gobind Singh and the complete manifestation of God The divine light now resides in Sri Guru Granth….
(Guru Gobind Singh Ji stated) “By the will of Vaheguru (God) Khalsa Panth was established. All of the Sikhs are ordered to follow Guru Granth Sahib as their final Guru.
Accept Guru Granth Sahib as the very embodiment of all Ten Gurus. Whosoever seeks to find the Almighty Vaheguru must search Him in the Word of Granth Sahib. He who wishes to see the Guru should see Guru Granth. He should treat the path of religion to obtain blessings and benefits by reading and listening to the Divine Word.
Vaheguru is in Guru Granth that is like a sea ship. Those who serve it with reverence and devotion are ferried across the ocean of life.
Therefore, we can safely conclude that Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji is the true Guru of the Sikhs as proven by numerous sources from 18th and 19th century. None of the historical sources claim otherwise or give any credibility to the flimsy and contrived Namdhari argument that the Gurugaddi was never bestowed in 1708.
It has been unequivocally proven that all contemporary, semi-contemporary and 19th century historical records testify to the physical ascension of Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji. None of the historical accounts remotely suggest that Guru Sahib escaped out of His own funeral in disguise. Instead, all accounts attest to Guru Sahib passing on the Gurugaddi to Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji and strictly commanding the Sikhs to obey Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji with all reverence and devotion. Namdhari theories are pure concoctions and remain totally unsubstantiated by all historical sources. We appeal to Namdharis to stop blindly following imposter humans and become true Sikhs by coming in the sanctuary of the Shabad Guru and the 5 beloved ones to obtain Amrit and Naam and thus earn eternal bliss and happiness, peace of mind and salvation.
. Singh, Ganda. Guru Gobind Singh’s Death at Nanded: An Examination of Succession Theories. Patiala: Punjabi University, 2008. Print, p. 12
. Ibid., p. 13
. Nath Mall, Dhadi. Amarnama. Ed. Ganda Singh. 1953. PDF file, p. 29
. Singh, G. pp. 14-15
. Sainpat, Kavi. Sri Gur Sobha. Ed. Ganda Singh. Patiala: Punjab University, 1996. Print, p. 170
. Singh, G. p. 35
. Ibid., p. 36
. Ibid., p. 37
. Sicques, Tigers or Thieves. Ed. Amandeep Singh Madra and Paramjit Singh. New York: Pelgrave Macmillan, 2004. Print, p. 139
. Ibid., p. 94
. Malcolm, John. Sketch of the Sikhs. Ed. Prithipal Singh Kapoor. Amritsar: Satvic Media PVT. Limited, 2007. Print, p. 67
. M’Gregor, W.L. The History of the Sikhs. New Delhi: Rupa & Co, 2008. Print, p. 104
. Cunningham, Joseph Davey. History of the Sikhs. New Delhi: Rupa & Co, 2008. Print, pp. 80-81
. Court, Major Henry. History of the Sikhs. Delhi: National Book Shop, 2003. Print, p. 57
. Singh, Kesar. Gurparnali. Ed. Ganda Singh. 1923. PDF File, p. 11
. The actual day was Thursday.
. Sondha, Kavi. Gurparnali. Ed. Ganda Singh. 1923. PDF File, p. 16
. Gulab Singh, Bhai. Gurparnali. Ed. Ganda Singh. 1923. PDF File, p. 64
. Singh, Koer. Gurbilas Patshahi 10. Ed. Shamsher Singh Ashok. Patiala: Punjab University, 1999. Print, pp. 269-70
. Singh, Sukha. Gurbilas Patshahi 10. Ed. Gursharan Kaur Jaggi, Patiala: Bhasha Vibhaag, 1989, Print. p. 441
. Santokh Singh, Kavi. Gur Partap Sooraj Parkash. Ed. Baljinder Singh. PDF file, Ras 10, Ansu 51, No. 26-29
. Santokh Singh, Kavi. GurPartap Sooraj Parkash vol 7. Trans. Dr. Ajit Singh Aulakh. Amritsar: Chattar Singh Jiwan Singh, 2003. Print, p. 695
. Ibid., Raas 10 Ansu 55, No. 20-23
. Gian Singh, Giani. Panth Parkash Poobaradh. Ed. Baljinder Singh. PDF file, pp. 1849-50
. Gian Singh, Giani. Twarikh Guru Khalsa, Vol 1. Ed. Baljinder Singh. PDF File, p. 385
. Gurdas Ji, Bhai. Vaars. Ed. Bhai Veer Singh. New Delhi: Bhai Veer Singh Sahit Sadan. 2011, Print. Vaar 1, Pauri 48, p. 39
. Nand Lal Ji, Bhai. Rehatnama. Rehatnamay. Ed. Piara Singh Padam. 6th ed. Amritsar: Singh Brothers, 1995. Print, p. 55
. Singh, Bhagat. Gurbilas Patshahi 6. Ed. Gurmukh Singh. Patiala: Punjab University, 1997. Print, pp. 151-52
. Singh, G. pp. 16-17
. Ibid., Appendix III. p. 79
. Singh, Koer. Gurbilas Patshahi 10. Ed. Shamsher Singh Ashok. Patiala: Punjab University, 1999. Print, pp. 265
. Translation by Ganda Singh in Guru Gobind Singh’s Death at Nanded: An Examination of Succession Theories. Patiala: Punjabi University, 2008. Print, p. 19
. Chibbar, Kesar Singh. Bansavali Nama. Ed Piara Singh Padam. Amritsar: Singh Brothers, 1995. Print, pp. 252-3
. Bhalla, Saroop Das. Mehima Parkash vol. 2 part II. Ed. Uttam Singh Bhatia. Punjab: Bhasha Vibhaag, 2003. Print, pp. 862-63
. Kaushish, Saroop Singh. Guru Kiyan Sakhiyan. Ed. Piara Singh Padam. Amritsar: Singh Brothers, 1999. Print, pp. 200-202
. Bhangu, Ratan Singh. Sri Gur Panth Parkash. Ed. Balwant Singh Dhillon. Amritsar: Singh Brothers, 2004. Print, p. 36
. Bawa, Sumair Singh. Sri Gur Pad Prem Parkash. Ed. Achhar Singh Kahlon. Patiala: Punjabi University, 2000. Print, p. 520
. Gian Singh, Giani. Panth Parkash Poobaradh. Ed. Baljinder Singh. PDF file, pp. 1839-40